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57 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Three Major Appeals of Public speaking
Logos, Ethos, and pathos
Logical arraignment of ideas
Emotional appeal
Organizing thoughts logically, tailoring message, telling story for max impact, adapting to listener impact
Similarities between public speaking and converstion
Public speaking is more organized and requires more formal language
Differences between public speaking and conversation
Develop a specific goal, outline how you will reach the goal, devise a method to determine when the goal is reached
Method to improve public speaking skills
External factors, internal factors, specific fears
Why people have speech anxiety
Collection of 3 or more who assemble for a specific puspose
Small Group
ability to achieve goals
Procedural needs, task needs, maintenance needs
Group Needs
Define problem, analyze problem, establish criteria for solutions, generate solutions, select the best solution
Dewey's Model for reflective thinking method
A group decision that is acceptable to all members of the group
Oral report, symposium, panel
Ways to present the recommendations of the group
Routine housekeeping actions necessary for the efficient conduct of business in a small group
Procedural Needs
Substantive actions necessary to help a small group to complete its assigned task
Task Needs
Communicative actions necessary to maintain interpersonal relations in a small group
Maintenance needs
A group member to whom other members defer because of their rank, expertise or other quality
Implied leader
A group member who emerges as a leader during the group's deliberations
Emergent leader
A person who is elected or appointed as a leader when the group is formed
Designated Leader
The branch of philosophy that deals with issues of right and wrong in human affairs
Involve weighing a potential course of action against a set of ethical standards or guidelines
Ethical Decisions
Make sure your goals are ethically sound, be fully prepared for each speech, and be honest in what you say.
Guidelines for ethical speaking
Presenting another person's language or ideas as your own
Stealing a speech entirely from a single source
Global Plagiarism
Stealing ideas or language from two or three sources
Patchwork Plagiarism
Failing to give credit for particular parts of a speech that are borrowed from other people
Incremental Plagiarism
Listen courteously and attentively, avoid prejudging the speaker, and maintain the free and open expression of ideas
Guidelines for Ethical Listening
Vibration of sound waves on the eardrums and the firing of electrochemical impulses in the brain
Paying close attention to, and making sense of, what we hear
Appreciative listening, empathic listening, comprehensive listening, critical listening
4 Kinds of listening
Listening for pleasure or enjoyment
Appreciative Listening
Listening to provide emotional support for a speaker
Empathic Listening
Listening to understand the message of a speaker
Comprehensive Listening
Listening to evaluate a message for purposes of accepting or rejecting it
Critical Listening
Trying to find someone's point of view
Active Listening
Not concentrating, listening to hard, jumping to conclusions, and focusing on delivery and personal appearence
Four main causes of poor listening
The difference between the rate at which most people talk and the rate which the brain processes language
Spare brain time
120-150 words per minute
Rate people normally speak
400-800 words per minute
Rate the brain can process language
Take listening seriously, be an active listener, resist distractions, don't be diverted by appearance or delivery, be open minded or suspend judgement
Ways to become a better listener
Is the purpose too trivial for my audience, is the purpose too technical,
Questions to ask about your specific purpose
A one-sentence statement that sums up or encapsulates the major ideas of a speech
Central Idea
Should be expressed in a full sentence, should not be in the form of a question, should avoid figurative language and should not be vague or overly general
Guidelines for the central idea
Keeping the audience foremost in mind at every step of speech preparation and presentation
Audience - centerdness
A process in which speakers seek to create a bond with the audience by emphasizing common values, goals, and experiences
The tendency of people to be concerned above all with their own values, beliefs, and well being
Audience analysis that focuses on demographic factors such as age, gender, religion, sexual orientation, group membership; racial, ethnic, or cultural background and education
Demographic Audience Analysis
Audience analysis that focuses on situational factors such as the size of the audience, the physical setting, and the disposition of the audience toward the topic, the speaker, and the occasion
Situational Audience Analysis
The larger the audience the more formal your presentation must be.
Rule for addressing audiences
Questions that offer fixed choice between two or more alternatives
Fixed-alternative questions
Questions that require responses at fixed intervals along a scale of answers
Scale questions
Questions that allow respondents to answer however they want
Open-ended questions
Authorship, sponsorship, and recency
What you look for when evaluating internet documents
Testimony from people who are recognized experts in their field
Expert Testimony
Testimony from ordinary people with firsthand experience or insight on a topic
Peer Testimony
Not concentration, listening too hard, jumping to conclusions, focusing on delivery and personal appearance
Four causes of poor listening