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47 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
the process of delivering a product or service directly to the consumer
the responses of the reciever that shape and alter subsequent messages from the source
individuals who decide whether a given message will be distributed by a mass medium
interpersonal communication
a method of communication in which on person/group interacts with another person/group without the aid of a mechanical device
machine-assisted interpersonal communication
a method of communication involving one or more persons and a mechanical device(s) with one or more recievers
mass communication
the process by which a complex organization, with the aid of one or more machines, produces and transmits public messages that are directed at large, heterogenous, and scattered audiences
beware surveillance
a media function that occurs when the media inform the public of short-term, long-term, or chronic threats
a release of pent-up emotion or energy
critical/cultural approach
analytical technique that examines power relationships in society and focuses on meanings people find in texts
functional approach
methodology that holds something is best understood by examining how it is used
instrument surveillance
a media function that occurs when the media transmit information that is useful and helpful in everyday life
parasocial relationship
a situation whereby audience members develop a sense of friendship or kinship with media personalities
social utility
the media function that addresses an individual's need to affiliate with family, friends, and others in society
status conferral
a process by which media attention bestows a degree of prominence on certain issues or individuals
the news and information function of the mass media
penny press
the mass-appeal press of the early 19th century
public journalism
the philosophy that newspapers should try to solve civic problems as well as report the news
subsidiary rights
rights given by a publisher to others, allowing them to reproduce certain content
Communications Act of 1934
Act of Congress creating the FCC
a regulatory agency, composed of 5 individuals appointed by the president, whose responsibilites include broadcast and wire regulation
bribes of gifts and money paid to DJs by record companies in order to gain favorable airplay for their releases
Prime-Time Access Rule
Rule adopted in 1970 intended to extend program diversity by barring network programs from the 7:30-8:00 pm (EST) time slot
Public Broadcasting Act of 1967
Congressional act that established the Public Broadcasting Service
tracking studies
study that examines how ads perform during or after a campaign
cease-and-desist order
a FTC order notifying an advertiser that a certain practice violates the law; failure to comply with order can result in fines being levied against the advertiser
consent order
FTC in which the advertiser agrees to halt a certain advertising practice without admitting any violation of the law
the act of harming the reputation of another by publishing false information
Equal Opportunites Rule
Part of the Communications act of 1934; Section 315 allows bona fide candidates for public office to gain access to broadcast medium during political campaigns
Fairness Doctrine
Now defunct FCC doctrine that require broadcast stations to provide various points of view on a controversial issue
Hicklin rule
long-standing obscenity standard based upon whether a book or other item contains isolated passages that might deprave or corrupt the mind of the most susceptible person
written defamation that tends to injure a person's reputation or good name or that diminishes the esteem, respect, or goodwill due a person
libel per quod
written material that becomes libelous under certain circumstances
libel per se
falsely written accusations (such as labeling a person a "thief" or a "swindler") that automatically constitute libel
prior restraint
an attempt by the government to censor the press by restraining it from publishing or broadcasting material
shield laws
legislation that defines the rights of a reporter to protect sources
spoken defamation
Telecommunications Act of 1996
Major revision of US communication laws that affected broadcasting, cable, and telephone industries:
-removed limits on number of radio stations owned by one person/organization
-removed limits on number of TV stations own if less than 35% of market
-extended broadcast license to 8 years
-allowed TV/telephone to enter telephone/TV business
-deregulated TV rates
-ordered creation of a V-Chip and a rating system
environmental noise
sources of noise external to the communication process but that still interfere
mechanical noise
when there's a problem with a machine being used to assist communication
semantic noise
occurs when different people have different meanings for different words or phrases
in a media context, the tendency of reporters or other media professionals to adopt the ideas and attitudes of the groups they cover or with which they have a great deal of contact
social responsibility theory
belief that the press has a responsibility to preserve democracy by properly informing the public and by responding to society's needs
agenda building
the ways media decide what is newsworthy
agenda-setting effect
influence of the mass media created by emphasizing certain topics, thus causing people to perceive those same issues as important
cultivation analysis
area of research that examines whether television and other media encourage perceptions of reality that are more consistent with media portrayals than with actuality
in cultivation analysis, the situation in which a respondent's life experiences are reinforced by what is seen on TV, thus reinforcing the effect of TV content
stimulation theory
theory that suggests viewing violence will actually stimulate an individual to behave more violently