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160 Cards in this Set

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Intimacy

significant emotional closeness experienced in a relationship

interdependency

a state in which each person's behaviors affect everyone else in the relationship

dialectical tensions

created by intimate relationships

conflicts between two important but opposing needs or desires


too much emphasis on one desire can lead to break up

Connection-Autonomy

we want to feel connected but still be free

openness-closedness

desire to be open and expressive v. desire to be closed and private

novelty-predictability

a certain amount of predictability is necessary for a relationship to develop but it can also lead to boredom

we need just enough novelty to make it exciting without being scary or uncertain


Stages of Romantic relationships coming together

a. initiating


b. experimenting


c. intensifying


d. integrating


e. bonding

initiating

meet for the 1st time

experimenting

attempt to find out who the other person is and define yourself in their eyes

intensifying

a. marks an increase in commitment and involvement in the relationship


b. increase levels of self-disclosure and becoming close friends


c. uses phrases like we and us

integrating

a. establish a deep commitment and the relationship has its own identity


b. when other people see one of you they expect to see the other


c. you can borrow stuff without having to ask

bonding

a. public announcement of commitment (engagement or marriage)


b. breaking up would be very difficult and relationship is no longer private

traditional couples

take a culturally conventional approach to marriage and believe in gender-typical division

separate couples

a. similar to traditional marriages, but the spouses are autonomous rather than interdependent


b. they have their own interests and social networks

independent couples

a. see themselves as being independent of social expectations for marriage


b. may not follow traditional gender norms

validating couples

a. talk about their disagreements openly and cooperatively


b. spouses communicate respect even when disagreeing

volatile couples

a. talk about disagreements but in a competitive rather than cooperative way


b. this can lead to intensive negative emotions, but can be followed by intensive affection and "making up"



conflict-avoiding couples

a. deal with their disagreements indirectly rather than openly


b. they feel there is little to be gained by engaging in conflict directly, believing that problems will resolve themselves


c. this tactic often leaves problems and issues unresolved

hostile couples

experience frequent and intense conflict

communication privacy management theory

theory that explains how people manage the tension between privacy and disclosure

stages of relationship termination

a. differentiating


b. circumscribing


c. stagnation


d. avoiding


e. terminating




**not a set, linear process

differentiating

differences between the individuals begin to surface and cause problems with the relationship

circumscribing

information exchange is reduced and some areas are completely avoided

stagnation

no growth in relationship


participants begin avoidance and communication becomes stylized and cold

avoiding

marked by increasing physical distance and separation

terminating

individuals take the necessary steps to formally end the relationship

genetic ties

families are bound together by blood

legal obligation

families involve legal bonds


parents have legal obligations to their children

role behaviors

regardless of legal or biological ties, people can take on the roles of family members

family of origin

the family in which one grows up in, often consisting of parents and siblings

family of procreation

the family one starts as an adult (often consisting of one's spouse and children)

characteristics of families

a. family roles


b. family rituals


c. family stories


d. family secrets

family roles

embody the function individuals fulfill within the family

family rituals

repetitive behaviors that have special meaning for a group or relationship

family stories

are told and retold


they have a positive family message

family secrets

families keep secrets and families keep them from each other

communication climate

the emotional tone of a relationship

confirming messages

behaviors that indicate how much we value another person

recognition

the basic form of confirmation


to recognize another person exists and is worthy of attention

acknowledgement

a more positive form of confirmation


recognize another person's feelings

endorsement

most positive form of confirmation


to signal that you agree with what another person has said

disconfirming messages

behaviors that imply a lack of regard for another person

impervious response

the most fundamental act of confirmation is recognition, to not acknowledge another is to deem them unimportant

verbal abuse

an overt form of disconfirming message which involves using words to hurt people

generalize complaining

specific complaints when dealing with a conflict can be helpful but generalized complaints undermine the other person's value

irrelevant response

replying to someone's message with completely unrelated statements

impersonal response

when you don't show real empathy and emotion with a cliche

defensiveness

excessive concern with guarding oneself against the threat of criticism

supportiveness

a person's feeling of assurance that others care about and will protect him or her

6 types of messages that promote defensiveness

1. Evaluation v Description


2. Control v Problem Orientation


3. Strategy v Spontaneity


4. Neutrality v Empathy


5. Superiority v Equality


6. Certainty v Provisionalism

evaluation v description

evaluative messages express an opinion on the value or worth of another person's behaviors


descriptive messages provide detail without passing judgment

control v problem orientation

control messages withhold info to control the listener


spontaneous messages express thoughts and desires openly and honestly

neutrality v empathy

neutral statements convey a lack of concern for others


empathetic statements show you care about others feelings and experiences

superiority v equality

messages of superiority encourage division, an us against them mentality


messages of equality emphasize inclusion and minimize difference

certainty v provisionalism

messages of certainty offer inflexible conclusions with no room for debate


provisional messages offer flexibility and create dialogue

non-evaluative feedback

a reply that withholds assessment of what the speaker has said or done


-probe: paraphrase, offer support

evaluative feedback

a reply that offers an assessment of what the speaker has said or done


-provide praise, criticize constructively

5 aspects of physical and mental health

a. social skills deficit


b. violence and suicide


c. cardiovascular difficulties


d. immune system malfunctions


e. risky health practices

inadequate interpersonal relationships contribute to what disease?

cardiovascular

what reduces the effectiveness of human immune systems and often leads to infection or stimulates autoimmune disease?

interpersonal stress

poor interpersonal relationships promote what?

risky health practices, such as smoking, overeating, and substance abuse



social skill deficits

a. result in mental and physical illnesses


b. parents who control their children and can't express emotion can be a cause


c. difficulty regulating emotional expression and engaging in interaction

violence and suicide

a. inadequate or dysfunctional relationships can be a cause


b. bullying

cardiovascular disease

a. poor personal relationships can be a cause


b. type A personalities are at a greater risk because they tend to be conflict-laden, aggressive, unsupportive, and unsupportable



immune system malfunctions

a. poor communication can lead to immune suppression


b. respiratory illnesses were far more common during periods of stressful family interaction than during stressful periods (???)


c. chronic stress reduces immunity


d. poor interpersonal communication can lead to autoimmune diseases


e. anger, depression, and stress


f. diseases also limit social participation=poor interpersonal communication

risky health practices

a. having unsupportive relationships makes it harder to stop smoking, reduce blood pressure, manage diabetes, lose weight, and even seek treatment for illness in the first place


b. parents who have poor relationships with students or bad communication practices are less likely to provide supervision and positive messages when it comes to accidents, drug and alcohol abuse, and unsafe sexual practices

mental health and overall happiness improve with a...

constructive conflict process

resolving conflict reduces what?

stress

our family of origin socializes us into either __________ or __________ ways of handling conflict and this can carry over into the way ____________ relationships are handled later in life

a. constructive


b. destructive


c. romantic

destructive marital conflict

a. negative conflict between parents reduces the family's network of friends and creates more loneliness


b. conflict between parents leads to focus on negative behaviors of their children


c. ongoing conflict at home has a greater impact on adolescent distress and symptoms than does parental divorce

love relationships

a. provide a rigorous test of our ability to manage conflict


b. first big fight in a relationship can be a predictor of its viability and sustainability


c. fights handled productively and successfully survive and prosper while those who do not, break up

workplace

a. conflict is a stubborn fact of organizational life


b. diverse work places and gender issues present a greater chance for impact


c. communication training should be seen as conflict prevention


d. unresolved conflict among management can permeate an organization and force people to take sides

conflict management

a. draws upon the skills of emotional intelligence


b. involves being aware of unresolved conflicts and defining the conflict so that parties understand the conflict

emotional intelligence

the capacity for recognizing our own feelings and those of others, for motivating ourselves, and for managing emotions well in ourselves and in our relationships

Culture

the totality of learned, shared symbols, language, values, and norms that distinguish one group of people from another

culture isn't property of countries, ethnicities, or economic classes, it is the property of __________

people

societies

groups of people who share common symbols, language, values, and norms

in-groups

groups of people with which a person identifies

out-groups

groups of people with which a person doesn't identify

true or false: Culture is related to our ethnicity

false

ethnicity

people's perceptions of ancestry or heritage

enculturation

the process each of us goes through to acquire a culture

co-culture

groups of people who share values, customs, and norms related to mutual interests or characteristics besides their national citizenships

communication values that distinguish cultures

a. power


b. achievement


c. hedonism


d. stimulation


e. self-direction


f. universalism


g. benevolence


h. tradition


i. conformity


j. security

norms

rules or expectations that guide people's behavior in a culture


-cultures vary

individualistic cultures

a culture in which people believe that their primary responsibility is to themselves

collectivistic cultures

a culture in which people believe that their primary responsibility is to their families, their communities, and their employers

low-context culture

a culture in which people are expected to be direct and say what they mean


-ex: US, Germany, Israel, Canada

high-context culture

a culture in which people are taught to speak in an indirect, inexplicit way


-ex: Korea, certain Native American tribes

high-power-distance cultures

a culture in which certain groups, such as the royal family or the members of the ruling political family, have much greater power than the average citizen


-ex: US, Austria, Canada, Denmark, New Zealand

low-power-distance culture

a culture in which people believe that no one person or group should have excessive power


-ex: India, Mexico, Singapore, the Philippines

feminine culture

a culture in which people cherish traditionally feminine qualities and prefer little differentiation in the roles of the women and men


-ex: Sweden, Chile, and the Netherlands

masculine culture

a culture in which people cherish traditionally masculine values and prefer sex-specific roles for men and women


-ex: Austria, Japan, Mexico

monochronic cultures

a culture that views time as a finite and tangible community


-ex: Switzerland, Germany, most American

polychronic cultures

a culture that views time as holistic, fluid, and infinite


-ex: Latin America, Sub-Sahara Africa, parts of the Middle East

uncertainty avoidance

the extent to which people try to avoid situations that are unstructured, unclear, or unpredictable

cultures who dislike uncertainty

dislike opinion and they tend to favor rules and laws that maximize security and reduce ambiguity


-ex: Argentina, Portugal, and Uruguay

cultures who are accepting of uncertainty

more accepting of people with different opinions and life styles. tend to have a "live and let live" attitude


-ex: Hong Kong, Jamaica, New Zealand

mindful aware

being aware of other cultures' behaviors

ethnocentrism

the tendency to judge other cultures' practices as inferior to one's own

communicating with culture awareness

a. be aware of other cultures and their differences


b. be open-minded about cultural differences


c. mindful aware


d. avoid ethnocentrism

communication codes

verbal and nonverbal behavior whose meanings are often understood only by people from the same culture

idioms

phrases whose meaning is not literal but figurative in language


-ex: raining cats and dogs

expect ______ and _________ when dealing with other cultures

ambiguity and uncertainty

the key to interacting with people of all backgrounds is

understanding how interpersonal communication works

model

representation of what something is and how it works

linear model of interpersonal communication

first model


depicted communication as a process in which one person acts on another person


sender to passive receiver

interactive models

process in which listeners give feedback


-communicators create and interpret messages within personal fields of experience


-one person sender one person receiver


-NO NOISE in this model

transactional model

emphasizes the dynamism of interpersonal communication and the multiple roles people assume during the process


-recognizes noise is present throughout the interpersonal communication

I-It communication

we treat others impersonally, almost as objects


-we don't acknowledge the humanity of other people

I-You communication

people acknowledge one another as more than objects, but they don't fully engage each other as unique individuals

I-Thou

-rarest kind of relationship


-cherished and unique


-highest form of human dialogue, because each person affirms the other


-we open ourselves fully, trusting others to accept us as we are, with our virtues and vices, hopes and fears, strengths and weaknesses

interpersonal communication

a selective, systemic, unique, processual transaction that allow people to reflect and build personal knowledge of one another and create shared meanings

selective

we don't want to communicate intimately with the majority of the people we encounter

systemic

takes place within various systems


occurs in contexts that influence events and the meanings we attribute

unique

at the deepest level


go beyond social roles, every person is unique and therefore irreplaceable

processual

ongoing continuous process

transactional

process of transaction between people. people are not just receivers or senders

individual

deepest level involves engaging others as individuals who are unlike anyone else

personal knowledge

to connect as unique individuals, we have to get to know each other personally and understand their thoughts and feelings

meaning creating

the heart of interpersonal communication is shared meanings between people

content meaning

deals with literal or denotative meaning (1st level)

relationship meaning

relationships between communicators (2nd level)

why study gender communication

a. enhances understanding of how culture influences views of masculinity and femininity as well as men and women


b. enhances in sight into your own gender



Sex

a. biological


b. chromosomes


- most commonly XX(female) or XY(male), but not always


c. Hormones


d. biology influences how our sex is labeled, and how we develop, but it doesn't determine behavior

gender

a. acquired and learned


b. we are socialized into it


c. not static

gender is learned (give examples)

a. toys


b. language


c. experiences

gender reflects social meanings and expectations

a. this is how we know what the "ideal" woman/man is like


b. cyclical


c. this means we can and do change

transgender

individuals who feel that their biologically assigned sex is inconsistent with their true sexual identity

transsexual

individuals who have had surgery and/or hormonal treatments

essentializing

the tendency to reduce something or someone to certain characteristics that we assume are essential to its nature and present in every member of a category, such as men or women

-doesn't allow us to recognize any differences within each sex

cultural impact on gender

gender is reflective of and promoted by society structures, institutions, and practices


-sons are given more freedom than daughters


-women are given more responsibilities in the home

what is the purpose of communication studies

to understand how people communicate and to understand how to make people better and more confident communicators

what does communication studies do

a. advocacy


b. conflict resolution and negotiation


c. relating to others better

plato's shadow

distrust of practical aspects of rhetoric such as public speaking, it allowed false truths to triumph over real truth


-looms over rhetoric practices such as PR, Advertising, and Marketing (many are skeptical of these practices)

Aristotle's view of communication

a. rhetoric can be used to promote either falsehood or truth


b. it is the duty of honorable citizens to arm themselves with knowledge and skill in rhetoric in order to defend the truth


c. persuasion is both a logical and psychological process

sophists

-earliest teachers of public speaking in Ancient Greece


-called their discipline rhetoric


-most influential was Socrates


-challenged the belief that life was predetermined by the Gods and advocated for the belief of free will


-argued the way to find truth was through debate

causes of the negative reputation of sophists

-Plato- in his work he was very critical of the Sophists


-Sophists were known for their willingness to take on any cause so long as they were paid

calling someone a sophist means

they are without morals or an ethic compass

ethos

ethics

logos

logic

pathos

emotion

epideictic speeches

ceremonial speeches, eulogies speeches based on feelings and emotions

deliberative

focused on the future, usually looking at options or policy decisions, what's the plan of action going forward

forensic

looking at the past, courtroom style speeches

5 skills required for effective speaking

1. invention


2. disposition


3. style


4. memory


5. delivery

Aristotle's view of Truth

a. Truth did exist and was findable through things such as formal logic and reasoning


b. accepted the fact that truth cannot always be found


c. debate and advocacy were the best means of decision making in instances where truth cannot be found

rhetoric

defined by Aristotle as "all the available means of persuasion"

audience analysis

an assessment and evaluation of listeners

syllogisms

a set of propositions that are related to one another and draw a conclusion from the major and minor premises

syllogism example

major premise: all men are mortal

minor premise: Aristotle is a man


Conclusion: Aristotle is mortal



forensic rhetoric

a type of rhetoric that pertains to speakers prompting feelings of guilt or innocence from an audience

epideictic rhetoric

a type of rhetoric that pertains to praising or blaming

persuasion structure speeches

a. problem-cause-solution


b. cause-effect-solution

informative speeches

a. chronology


b. explanation-application-implication

utilitarianism

all ethical conflicts can be resolved by determining which action would create "the greatest good for the greatest number of people"



who developed utilitarianism

Jeremy Bentham & John Stuart Mill

Tragedy of the Commons

resources held in common are not maintained or treated well because no one person feels responsible

who created the Veil of Ignorance

John Rawls (american philosopher)

The Veil of Ignorance

if people had to make decisions not knowing whether they would benefit themselves, they act more justly


-a just society would focus on caring for it's weakest members


-people would favor systems of governance that benefitted everyone and not an elite few because people would not know their place in society