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55 Cards in this Set

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Statement for how members of a small group may, should, or must behave.


Unstated informal rule, enforced by peer pressure, governs the behaviors of a small group.


Influence exerted through communication that helps achieve group goals.

Distributive Leadership

Leadership is the responsibility of the group as a whole, not just the designated leader, assumes that all group members can and should contribute to the group.

Transformational Leadership

Changes and transformations of individuals, and frequently incorporates charismatic and visionary leadership.

Traits Approach

Leaders have certain traits that distinguish them.

Styles Approach

Studies the interrelationship between leader style and member behavior.

Functions Approach

Study of the functions performed by leaders, the theory that leadership is defined by the functions a group needs and can be supplied by any member.

Contingency Approach

Study of leadership that assumes that the appropriate leadership style in a given situation depends on factors such as, members' skill and knowledge, time, type of task.

Laissez-Faire Leaders

Do-nothing leaders who provide minimal services to the group.

Autocratic Leaders

Try to dominate and control the group.

Legitimate Power

Stems from a title or role acknowledged by the followers.

Referent Power

Based on attraction of identification with another person.

Expert Power

Comes from others believing a member knows or can accomplish.

Decision Making

Choosing from a set of alternatives.

Ad Hominem Attack

Attack on a person rather than his/her argument, name-calling, distracting to the group.


Standards for judging other alternatives, may be absolute, or relative.

Assembly Effect

Decision of the group is collectively superior adding together the wisdom, knowledge, experience, and skills of the members.


Some members coming up with the same idea and others going along with it because its what the group thinks.

Areas of Freedom

Scope of authority and responsibility of a group, including limits on the groups authority.

Conflict Style: Competing

Me not We, aggressive, controlling, High task low social.

Conflict Style: Collaborating

Problem solving, win/win situation, cooperative, high task high social.

Conflict Style: Accommodating

Obliging, passive, high social low task, plays down disagreements.

Conflict Style: Avoiding

Lose/lose, low task low social, denial, passive aggressive, no concern for self or others.

Conflict Style: Compromising

Part win/part lose, moderate task moderate social, temporary fix.


Group member who differs in some important way, degree of participation, values, opinions, helps group examine alternatives.

Task Conflict

Results from disagreement over ideas, information, reasoning, evidence.

Panel Discussion

Group that interacts an in impromptu manner for the benefit of the listening audience.


Person who controls flow of communication during public presentation.

Two Dimensions of a Message

Content message(verbal, speech, messages) and Relational message (nonverbal).

When are groups best at making decisions?

When several alternatives/solutions are possible.

Social Style: Driver

Takes charge, JUST DO IT, wants to what when and where.

Social Style: Expressive

Lets all do it, wants to know who else, likes energy and optimism.

Social Style: Analytical

Do it right or don't at all, likes to plan, wants to know how to do things.

Social Style: Amiable

Likes co-operation and loyalty, wants to know why and who, we're great!

Deep Dive Process

Creation of Hot Teams


Rapid Prototyping

Observing and Listening

Thinking of Products

Group Polarization

Group interaction seems to intensify viewpoints of individual group members and moves them.

Advantages of Video/Text Conferences
Quick and easy to set-up and use, effective for sharing information.

Disadvantages of Video/Text Conferences

Member isolation, quantity and quality may suffer.

Primary Tension

Tension/discomfort in members stemming from interpersonal sources like social unease when members first meet or during competition for powers.

Secondary Tension

Work related, found in differences of opinion between members as they accomplish tasks.

Task Functions

Contribute directly to accomplishing a group task.

Maintenance Functions

Helps group maintain harmonious relationships.

How do norms become set in a group?

Enforced by peer pressure

Behavior that happens early

Explicit Statements

Critical Events

Process of Emergent Leadership

Person starts with same status as other members but gradually emerges as an informal leader.

Contingency Leadership

Leadership behaviors depend on the situation.

What are the categories evaluated in the leadership questionnaire?

Trait Emphasis

Ability Emphasis

Skill Emphasis

Behavior Emphasis

Relationship Emphasis

Ways groups make decisions

Leader or other designated members makes the decision without consulting the group

Group leader consults group but makes final decision

Members vote and majority rules

Group reaches consensus (Everyone agrees)

How is conflict chart arranged

X-Axis: Cooperative Behavior

Y-Axis: Assertive Behavior

Task Conflict

Substantive Conflict, disagreement over ideas, meanings, issues, and other manners.

Relational Conflict

Affective conflict, originates from interpersonal power clashes, likes/dislikes related to the task.

How is conflict positive

Understanding of issues more clearly

Improved group decisions

Increased member involvement

Can increase cohesiveness

Role of Audience Analysis

Gather as much information as possible about audience.

Why should you understand group logistics?

Important to have all supplies needed.

Ex: Tape for posters.

How can statistics be used effectively in presentations?

Emphasizes key points and supports your position.