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124 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
control (result?)
control: the controller feels they know what is good for the controllee (the "i know what's good for you" assumpion) People become defensive.
problem orientation (result?)
strives for a solution that will benefit all concerned (Rather than just yourself). Results in beter cohesiveness, more supportive climate, and increased productivity.
certainty vs. provisionalism
person acting with certainty can be perceived as being dogmatic, which may result in defensive attitudes. Provisionalism: described as being flexible and open to approaches and information.
Social Exchange Theory
describes relationships in terms of rewards and costs. As long as rewards exceed costs, group members will continue to be attractive.
systems theory
an open system of interdependent elemtns, employing input variables and process variables to yield output.
when the whole is greater than the sum of it's parts.
Process variables
the procedure that the group follows to reach its goals
Structuration theory
explains how people use rules and resources to interact in a social system.
"action oriented"
strategic DOING instead of strategic pondering.
GDSS (group decision support system)
any type of electronic communication used to organize group tasks.
active listening/nonactive listening
al: notebook open, leaning forward, eye contact, asking questions, showing interested
nl: head down, not paying attention, computer in lap
1. stop, look, listen, ask questions, paraphrase content and feelings
Task leadership
involves the process of initiating discussion to spark ideas, coordinating differences in group member thinking, summarizing discussions when necessary, and elaborating to help visualize ideas. (michelle computing commons)
when attracted to others who exhibit qualities they do not have but admire. (opposites attract)
one that proposes new ideas or approaches to group problem solving, or suggesting a different approach to procedure or organizing the problem-solving task.
Information Seeker
asking for clarification of suggestions; also asking for facts or other info that may help the group deal with the issues at hand (asking to clarify tasks)
rules and standards that determine what is appropriate in a group. establish expectations of how group members hould behave. Help to reduce some of the uncertainty that occurs when people congregate.
6 suggestions to reduce groupthink
1. group leader should encourage critical, independent thinking.
2. group members should be sensitive to status differences.
3. invite someone from outside the group to evaluate the group's decision making process
4. Assign a group member the role of devil's advocate.
5. ask group members to subdivide into small groups or individually and consider potential problems with the suggested solution.
6. consider using technology to help gather and evaluate ideas.
explanatory function:
The power theories have to explain things.
Predicted function:
the power theories have to predict things.
Process theories
general theories that explain human behaviors across a variety of contexts.
Method theories
Special theories that offer prescriptions for behavior.
Social Exchange Theory
A description of human relationships in terms of their costs and rewards.
pleasurable outcomes associated with particular behaviors
mental effort, anxiety, embarrassment, etc
systems theory
an orderly strategy for understanding the complexity of groups in terms of input, processes, and output.
a relationship among components in a system wherein a change in one component affects all other components.
the measure of randomness and chaos in a group
a systems-theory principle that a final state may be reached by multiple paths and from different initial states.
symbolic convergence theory
The development of a group consciousness and identity through the sharing of fantasies or stories which are often chained together and have a common theme.
in symbolic-convergence theory, the creative and imaginative shraed interpretation of events which fulfills a group psychological or rhetorical need.
two levels of reality
what actually happens
our interpretations and beliefs about what happens.
fantasy theme
the common or related content of the stories that the group is sharing during a group fantasy.
fantasy chain
a string of connected storiesthat revolve around a common theme that occurs when a group is sharing a group fantasy.
structuration theory
a general framework that explains how people use rules and resources to interact in a social systems
a followable prescription for acceptable behavior that identify the appropriate or expected behavior of group members.
functional theory
communication in groups functions to promote sound reasoning, preventing errors and building productive relationships among members
Groups remain attractive to their members so long as the rewards of group membership excced the costs
Social Exchange Theory
The small group is an open system of interdependent elements, employing input variables to yield output
Systems theory
Group members develop a group consciousness and identity through the sharing of fantasies or stories which are often chained together and have a common theme.
symbolic convergence theory
poeple use rules and resources in interaction to structure social sytems
structuration theory
communication in groups functions to promote sound reasoning, preventing errors, and buliding productive relationships among members
functional theory
Openness to environment means
a group doesn't operate in isolation, members may change, goals may change,climate may change
input variables
group members and resources, funds, tools, knowledge, purposes, relationships to other groups or organizations, the physical environment
process variables
the procedures the group follows to reach its goals
6: situation, leadership, individual group goals, norms, roles, cohesiveness
output variables
outcomes of the group process ranging from solutions and decisions to personal growth and satisfaction
proposes new ideas or approaches to group problem solving. May suggest a different approach to procedure or organizing the problem solving task
Asks for clarification of suggestions: also asks for facts or other info that may help the gorup deal with the issues at hand
information seeker
asks for a clarification of the values and opinions expressed by other group members
opinion seeker
provides facts, examples, stats, and other evidence that pertains to the problem the group is attempting to solve
information giver
offers beliefs or opinions about the ideas under discussion
opinion giver
provides examples based on his or her experience or the pexperience of others that help to show how an idea or suggestion would work if the gorup accepted a particular course of action
tries to clarify note relationships among ideas and suggestions that have been provided by others
attempts to summarize what has occurred and tries to keep the gorup focused on the task at hand
makes an effort to judge the evidence and conclusions that the group suggests
tries to spur the group to action and attempts to motivate and stimulate the group to greater productivity
helps the group achieve its goal by performing tasks such as distributing papers, rearrnaging the seating, or running errands for the group
procedural technician
writes down suggestions and ideas of others; makes a record of the group's progress
offers praise, understanding, and acceptance of others' ideas and suggestions
mediates disagreements among group members
attemps to resolve conflicts by trying to find an acceptable solution to disagreements among group members
encourages less-talkative group members to participate and tries to limit lengthy contributions of other gorup members
helps to set standards and goals for the group
standard setter
keeps record of the gorup's process and sues the info that is gathered to evaluate the group's procedures
group observer
basically goes along with the sggestions and ideas of other group members
destroys or deflates the status of other group members; may try to take credit for someone else's contribution
is generally negative stubborn and disagreeable without apparent reason
seeks the spotlight by boasting and reporting on his or her personal achievements
recognition seeker
uses the group as an audience to report personal feelings, insights, or observations
tells jokes and stories that do not help the group, lack of interest
makes an effort to assert authority by manipulating group members or attempting to take over the entire group;
tries to evoke a sympathetic response from others; often espresses insecurity or feelings of low self-worth
help seeker
works to serve an individual need; sepaks for a special group or organization that bbest fits his or her needs
special-interest pleader
factors that affect conformity to group members
1. the clarity of the norm and the certainty of punishment for breaking it.
2. the number of people who have already conformed to the norm
3. the individual characteristics of the group members
4. the quality of the interpersonal relationships that have developed in the group
5. the sense of gorup identification that members have developed
When you greet a person who is blind, identify yourself
When assisting, offer your arms, the same way an usher does at a wedding
talk normally, using customary and typically expressions of speech
provide oral cues for hte blind who it is his or her turn to speak
gesture about the person who is blind
Be protective
assume the blind person needs braille
speak directly to a person in a wheelchair
ask directly how you may assist
sit down so tha tyou are at eye level
shake hands or touch people who are physically impaired
ask questions about the person's disability
touch or move the wheelchair
tlak about the person if he/she is not present
let them talk at their own pace
if you can't understand, ask quesiotns that require onlyh a short answer
repeat or confirm that you understand
if can't get it, encourage them to say it a different way
invite to conribute to discussion if shy
pretned to understand when you dont
confuse mental impairment with speech impairment
an individuals position of importance
h/l talk more
high status
h/l have more influence
high status
h/l communicate more often with other high-status members
high status
h/l generally abide by group norms
high status
h/l are less likely to be ignored
high status
h/l are less likely to complain about their responsibilities
high status
h/l talk to the entire group
high status
h/l are likely to serve in leadership roles
high status
h/l direct conversation to high-status rather than low-status members
low status
h/l communicate more positive messages to high status members
low status
h/l are more likely to have their comments ignored
low status
h/l communicate more irrelevant information
low status
h/l talk to high status members as a substitute for climbing the social hierarchy in the group
low status
h/l have more influence on group decision
high status
h/l group members usually abide by the norms of the group more than h/l
high status, low
group memberse more likely to ignore h/l status comments
h/l talk to the entire group more
the resources an individual has with which to exert control over others.
legitimate power
stems from a group member's ability to influence others because of being elected, appointed, or selected to exert control over a group.
stems from a group member's ability to influence others because of being elected, appointed, or selected to exert control over a group.
legitimate power
Referent power
the power of interpersonal attraction
the power of interpersonal attraction
referent power
expert power
stems from a group member's ability to influence others based on the knowledge and information the member possesses.
stems from a group member's ability to influence others based on the knowledge and information the member possesses.
expert power
reward power
based on person's ability to provide rewards for behaviors
coercive power
based on the perception that another can punish you for acting or not acting in a certain way
m/f more easily influenced?
m/f have less power over others
defensive communication
communicative behavior that arouses in another person the need to protect his or her self-concept.