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20 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
unitary frame of reference
emphasis is placed on common organizational goals

conflict is rare and negative

power is the natural prerogative of management

ex: classical approach, HR approach: role of theorist is to find effective techniques for organizing
pluralist frame of reference
organization consists of many groups with divergent interests

conflict is positive and inherent

ex: systems and cultural approach: considering management divergent subgroup interests
radical frame of reference
organization is a battleground where rival forces strive for the achievement of largely incompatible ends

conflict and power are seen as reflections of larger class struggles in society

ex: critical approach: consider organizations as sites of domination, theory can emancipate individuals from dominating forces, activist role
What critical theory believes
1) certain societal structures and processes lead to fundamental imbalances of power

2) imbalances of power lead to alientation and oppression

3) role of theorist is to explore and uncover imbalances, bring them to attention of group... where then emancipation is possible
How critical theorists see power
a defining, ubiquitous feature of organizational life

control and domination

concerned with the deep structures that produce and reproduce relationships, and the contradictions between deep and surface powers
Traditional approach to power
considers power to be relatively stable entity that people or a group posses

scholars ask questions about factors that lead to org power and the impact of the power on outcomes like satisfaction and performance

equate power with control over resources or with hierarchical status

(classical and human relations)

formal authority, control of scarce resources, control of knowledge and information
Symbolic approach to power
views power as a product of communicative interactions and relationships

interested in how communication constitutes understandings of power through scoially constructed relationships

(cultural theorists)
Radical-critical approach to power
concerned with deep structures that produce and reproduce power relationships

believe there are inherent contradictions between surface structure and deep structure

role is to explore ways in which economic, social, and communicative relationships produce and maintain organizational power relationships

looks at controls of modes and means of production and control of organizational discourse
How are power relationships produced and reproduced through communication?
organizational discourse

reality is constructed through communicative interactions

critical scholars suggest that reality created through discourse is the site of domincation
the taken for granted assumptions about reality that influence perceptions of situations and events

refers to more than a set of attitudes or beliefs, but that ideology structures our thoughts and controls our interpretations of reality

shapes understanding of what exists, what is good, and what is possible

involves assumptions that are rarely questioned or scrutinized

for critical scholars, ideology is tied to domination and power
a process in which a dominant group leads another group to accept subordination as the norm

manufactured consent in which employees willingly adopt and reinforce hierarchical power structures

control is gained by shaping ideology in such a way that the controlled group accepts and actively participates in the control process
Ultimate goal of critical model
liberation of people from unnecessarily restrictive traditions, ideologies, assumptions, power relations, identity formations... etc that inhibit or distort opportunities for autonomy and satisfaction

emerging awareness and communicative action on the part of the oppressed
How workers can exert counter pressure on exercise of power and control
Concertive Control
When smaller groups within an organization self govern and often exert more control than the organization itself

Workers achieve concertive control by reaching a negotiated consensus on how to shape their behavior according to a set of core values, such as the values found in a corporate vision statement
Concertive system qualities
Flat hierarchy
Informal networks, increased communication
Teamwork, cooperation
Flexibility, innovation
Blurring of member distinctions
Value consensus
Why does concertive control become more controlling?
small groups become self governing because people buy into small group ideology more than the entire company's
Feminist approach to organizing
Informal assignation of tasks
Work-life integration
Informal, subjective control; shared ideologies
Feminist organization
Feminist approach to organizing
goals are feminist- ex political change, empowerment, indomination


uses feminist principles to organize, ex bike co-op emphasis on anyone's empowerment, informal
3 waves of feminism
1st- basic woman's rights
2nd- radical, body rights, reproductive
3rd- end domination, inclusive, collective empowerment