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82 Cards in this Set

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What are the 2 types of Memory for General Knowledge?
Episodic and Semantic
Characteristics of Episodic Memory
1. memory for specific events in which you were somehow involved
2.more blood flow to the frontal lobe with episodic retrieval
3. the difference isn't the type of info, it's whether or not you have awareness of the learning episode.
Characteristics of Semantic Memory
1. No info regarding the circumstances in which the info was acquired.
2. the difference isn't the type of info, it's whether or not you have awareness of the learning episode.
Evidence for Separate Memory Systems
1. Amnesiacs (one type damaged, other intact)
2. Blood flow (more in frontal lobe for episodic)
Collins and Quillan Hierarchical Model of Semantic Memory
1. cognitive economy - avoid storing abundant information
2. store info at highest possible (most general) level
3. 2 types of links - "is a" and property links
4. 3 assumptions (next card)
3 Assumptions of the Collins and Quillan model of semantic memory
1. retrieving a property and traversing the hierarchy take time
2. times are additive
3. times are level independent
How was the Collins/Quillan model tested?
Sentence variation task
Problems with the Collins/Quillan model
1. the model predicts that "a dog is a mammal" should be faster than "a dog is an animal" but it's not.
2. can't handle negative sentences (a dog is a lightbulb should take forever to go through the whole hierarchy but we know right away it's not)
3. doesn't account for typicality effects. for example, we're quicker to classify banana as a fruit than olive, even though they're both fruits.
Collins/Loftus Speading Activation Theory
1. When processing a concept, activation spreads to related concepts.
2. if what you're processing is already partially activated, it saves time
Assumptions of the Collins/Loftus theory
1. activation spreads on all paths
2. activation spreads in parallel
3. activation decreases over time
4. complex decision rules on negative trials (what?)
What is the lexical decision test?
Asks you to indicate whether stimulus shown is a word or not.
The coglab on priming showed us:
1. we have a faster response to the test item (target) when the preceding item (prime) is related compared to when it's unrelated

Note: you cannot detect the relationship until the 2nd word is shown
What 2 types of processes affect priming?
1. automatic processes
2. strategic processes
Automatic processes (as they relate to priming)
1. pre-existing relationship (doctor - nurse, fire - hot)
2. priming will be found even with very short SOA's
Strategic processes (as they relate to priming)
1. not pre-existing, but you're told to expect them
example: "if you see bird, the next word will be a building"
2. effects only seen at long SOA's; it takes a while to activate the strategy
3. can facilitate OR inhibit response based on current expectations
Who tested the 2 types of processes affecting priming?
Neely (1977)
bird-bird vs. bird-building
Prediction we make for the bird-bird relationship
1. automatic process, so should be seen at low SOA's
Prediction for bird-building
2. strategic process, so should be seen at long SOA's.
What is the advantage and the disadvantages of the spreading activation theory?
Advantage - simple, intuitive, explains a lot of data
Disadvantages - vague, hard to make predictions, trouble with mediated priming
Mediated Priming
1. Priming when there is no obvious pre-existing semantic relationship

Example: lion > tiger > stripes
mane > lion > tiger > stripes
Problem with mediated priming
Assuming each item can prime 20 others, and each of these can activate another 20, and each of these can activate another 20, the amount of possible primed words is unrealistic
Connectionist Model of Memory
1. "items" not stored in memory
2. instead, info is stored as pattern of neural activity
Example: TV (not really a picture, just patterns of pixels)
Components of Connectionist Model
1. nodes - like neurons
2. connections
3. connection weights
Algebra as an analogy for connectionist model
4x + 2y = z

we don't store all possible values of "z"; we determine it after GIVEN input.
Declarative vs. Procedural Memory
declarative - we can state it verbally (H20 is water)

procedural - know how to do something (ride a bike) but can't verbalize the memory
Implicit vs. Explicit memory
implicit - not deliberate or conscious, but shows evidence of prior learning and storage (knowing how to walk to class automatically)

explicit - consciously recollected (her name was ____)
Implicit learning test coglab (old)
instructions: press key when dot appears

dots occur in complex pattern (experimental) or random (control group)

in control, RT decreases due to practice

in exp, same pattern is shown every time except block 10, RT decreases dramatically EXCEPT for block 10. (block 10 reaction time is the same as RT in the beginning of the experiment)
In the coglab discussed, how do the results give evidence for implicit memory?
1. decrease in RT across trials
2. increase in RT for block 10
3. most people have no conscious knowledge of the pattern
How did the Tower of Hanoi serve to prove that explicit and implicit memory are separate systems?
Amnesiacs and control group both showed improvement over time, but the amnesiacs could not remember ever solving the puzzle before.
Warrington and Weiskrantz (1970):
Implicit and Explicit memory
Used amnesiacs and controls.
Explicit test used: free recall and recognition (was this on the list?)
Implicit test used: word-fragment completion and word+stem completion.

Amnesiacs score poorly on explicit, but about equal as controls for implicit.
(have not found anyone who scores well on explicit but not implicit)
What is a concept?
A mental representation of some object, event, or pattern.
What is a category?
A class of similar things (objects or entities) that share 1 of 2 things: essential core or appearance, function, and biological properties.
What are the 4 views of categorization?
1. Classical
2. Prototype
3. Exemplar
4. Knowledge-Based
According to the classical view of categorization, what are "defining features"? (2 parts)
1. required for category membership
2. all members of the category share it.
Defining features must be both ______ and ______.
1. necessary (every member must have it)
2. sufficient (having it is enough to be in the category)
Assumptions of the classical view of categorization
1. concepts mentally represent lists of features
2. concepts to not hold specific examples
3. category membership is all or none
4. all members are created equal (you can't be a "better" chair)
Problems for the classical view of categorization
1. people don't have lists of representative features (what are the features of a game?)
2. category membership is not all or none (is a bookend furniture? answers fluctuate)
3. all members not created equal ("better" triangle - due to typicality effects)
How does family resemblance relate to the prototype view of categorization?
* each member has a number of features
* each member shares different features with different members
* few (if any) features are shared with every single member
What is a prototype?
the best of more representative member of a category.
* usually mathematical average - may not exist in real life
* used as a model for comparison when deciding if something fits into a category
How does the typicality effect relate to the prototype model?
more typical members of a category share more features with the prototype
Problems with the prototype view of cagegorization:
1. effect of set size (faster with smaller categories than larger ones)
2. effect of category homogeniety - faster with categories whose members are more similar to each other
Prototype Effect Coglab
* present a stimulus, decide if it's A or B (but never see the actual prototype)
* at test, given actual prototypes with slight variations - faster for prototypes than variations even though it's our first time seeing both
What is an exemplar?
An example of a member of a category (we store these) - they are actual items that we associate strongly with the category (common member of the category)
How does the exemplar model decide membership into categories?
*membership is determined by comparing item to exemplar.
* if a new instance is sufficiently similar to the stored exemplar, it is a member of the group
Problems with the prototype and exemplar views:
1. similarity is not consistent - judgments of similarity are inconsistent based on superficial changes (such as context)
2. both views have trouble defining "similarity"
According to the knowledge-based view of categorization, [concept] is to [example of the concept] as [theory] is to...
...data supporting the theory.
Prototype Effect Coglab
* present a stimulus, decide if it's A or B (but never see the actual prototype)
* at test, given actual prototypes with slight variations - faster for prototypes than variations even though it's our first time seeing both
What is an exemplar?
An example of a member of a category (we store these) - they are actual items that we associate strongly with the category (common member of the category)
How does the exemplar model decide membership into categories?
*membership is determined by comparing item to exemplar.
* if a new instance is sufficiently similar to the stored exemplar, it is a member of the group
Problems with the prototype and exemplar views:
1. similarity is not consistent - judgments of similarity are inconsistent based on superficial changes (such as context)
2. both views have trouble defining "similarity"
According to the knowledge-based view of categorization, [concept] is to [example of the concept] as [theory] is to...
...data supporting the theory.
According to the knowledge-based view of categorization, do we compare features or similarities between entities?
Nope.
How do we categorize according to the knowledge-based view?
*use knowledge of how the concept is organized to justify classification and explain why certain instances happen to go together in the same category.

* people's theories and mental explanations are bound with their concepts and are used to categorize.
Describe Ebbinghaus's study
* created lists of nonsense syllables
* measured # repetitions needed to learn the list
* waited for certain periods of time
* measured # reps needed to RElearn
* calculate percent savings
How is percent savings calculated?
T1 = time to learn
T2 = time to re-learn
(100) * ( T1 - T2 ) / T1
Levels of Processing - Memory Retrieval
* memory depends on how deeply you encode the material
In the levels of processing model of memory retrieval, are rehearsal and intent to learn important?
Noooo.
Deep vs Shallow processing
(with cotton as an example)
shallow - how many letters? sounds like rotten.

deep - cotton comes from a plant, it's soft and white, etc
What study investigated whether intent to learn was important for memory retrieval AND whether depth of processing was important?
Hyde and Jenkins (1973)
* incidental - not aware of upcoming test
* intentional - aware of upcoming test
* incidental and intentional group for each level of processing

RESULTS - depth important, intent not important
Problems with the levels of processing model of memory retrieval:
1. Circular measure of depth:
the processing was deep, because i recalled it well, but i recalled it well because it was deep...?

2. incorrect prediction - the model suggests that deep is always better but shallow CAN be better depending on the task
Morris et. al. (1977) study of deep and shallow processing
* investigated whether deep/shallow processing makes a difference based on the type of task
* For tasks requiring only shallow elements (do these words rhyme?) shallow is better
* For tasks requiring semantic understanding (sentence task), deep is better.
What is does the transfer appropriate processing model tell us?
Memory is better when the processing done at encoding is appropriate given the processing that will be required on the test.
What is encoding specificity?
The recollection of an event or a certain aspect of it depends on the interaction between the properties of the encoded event (what cues were present during encoding) and the properties of the retrieval information (during test).
What are 4 examples of encoding specificity?
1. context-dependent memory
2. state-dependent memory
3. mood-dependent memory
4. mood-congruent
Context-dependent memory:
memory is better when study and test environments are the same.

* Godden and Baddeley (1975)
study on land - better on land, study underwater - better underwater
State-dependent memory:
memory is better when the biological state at encoding is the same as during testing

(if you're drunk when you study, you recall better if you're drunk when you test...but not as well as if you're sober both times)
Mood-dependent memory:
memory is better if mood when studying is the same as mood during test
Mood-congruent memory:
mood you are IN during recall affects the TYPE (not performance) of information you remember. (if you were happy when you studied, more likely to remember happy things and vice versa)
What is confabulation?
supplying additional information and details that were not part of the original episode.

* you add info that most likely did happen
* usually details supplied by general knowledge, inference, and alternate events
How can a memory change over time?
As time goes on, we may add general knowledge, inferences, alternate events, etc since the event actually happened (every time we recall it, we add something new, and then recall that whole thing again)
What is a schema?
an organized knowledge structure that reflects an individual's knowledge, experience, and expectations about some aspect of the world.
Schemas can influence how information is ____ and ____.
1. encoded
2. retrieved

examples: laundry story, "going hunting" versus "escaped convict"
What are flashbulb memories?
Memories of highly surprising events that preserve the exact details of a scene, as if frozen by a photograph
Are flashbulb memories more accurate?
Not necessarily, but people are usually more confident about them.

NOTE: this is really hard to study, because finding a control group is a little ridiculous.
How can eyewitness testimony be messed up?
1. confabulation
2. attribution errors
3. inferences
4. being misled
What is an attribution error?
You remember something correctly, but it's attributed to the wrong source (Phoebe and Ross on Friends - dream)
What did Loftus and Palmer (1974) study in terms of memory recall?
The effects of inferences.

The cars smashed/contacted each other.
What did Loftus and Burns (1978) study in terms of memory recall?
How easy it is to mislead people.

Did another car PASS the red Datsun while it STOPPED at the _____ sign? (yield or stop)
Can incentive have an effect on memory?
Yes.
Why is the term "false memory" misleading?
it implies that there are "true" and "false" memories, when in fact all memories are false (we reconstruct them no matter what)
How were false memories studied?
given a list of related words that all relate to a "critical lure" that is not ever mentioned, later test to see if they "remember" seeing the critical lure.
What is a confederate in the "remember when...?" study of implanted memories?
Someone else who collaborates with the story - makes it more believable.