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48 Cards in this Set

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Explicit vs. Implicit Memory

Explicit: tests that directly require memories from the past (free recall, cued recall)


-consciously recollected materials




Implicit: tests that indirectly measure retention


(word fragment completion, priming)


-occurs without being aware



Declarative vs. Procedural Memory

Declarative: knowing that you know it


(I know that George Washington was the first president)


-personally relevant sometimes




Procedural: knowing how to do something


(I know how to drive a car)


-cognitive and motor skills

Retrospective vs. Prospective Memory

Retrospective: memory from the past




Prospective: memory for the future


(buy milk on the way home from work)


- event-based tasks easier to remember than time-based tasks

Episodic vs. Semantic Memory

Episodic: the acquisition and retrieval of information about specific personal experiences that occur at a particular time and place


-important for remembering specific instances




Semantic: a person's general knowledge about the world


-not associated with a specific learning context


- important for extracting generalities

Clustering

Tendency to recall similar items in groups

Constructive Processes

Taking information in and combining with existing knowledge

Reconstructive Processes

Retrieval of information in combination of existing knowledge

Schemas

Organized clusters of knowledge about events or objects based on experience


-e.g. how to act nice in a restaurant


-study: room with (no) books


-story telling: omission errors, normalization errors

Rehearsal

Maintenance rehearsal: repeating items over and over again




Elaborative rehearsal: deep semantic processing

Levels of Processing

Orthographic: shallow, poor retention




Phonological: medium, medium retention




Semantic: deep, good retention

Distinctiveness Hypothesis

Memory is determined in part by how well the information encoded specifies the event being reconstructed


-how much an item stands out relative to other items matter

Von Restorff Effect

If one item in a list differs, it is better recalled

Elaboration

Linking a stimulus to other information at time of encoding


-link presented information with preexisting knowledge

Self-Referent Encoding

Making the material personally relevant


-better memory

Spacing Effects

Distributed encoding leads to better retention that massed encdoing

Testing Effects

Taking a test increases long-term memory more than simply studying

Transfer Appropriate Processing

Memory performance depends on the extent to which processes used at the time of learning are the same as those used when memory is tested


-chocolate scent in room or not

Intrinsic vs. Extrinsic Context

Intrinsic: features which are integral part of target stimulus




Extrinsic: other features present at time of encoding

Lag Recency Effect

After recalling a given word, the next word recalled tends to come from a nearby serial position

Working Memory

The system for the temporary maintenance and manipulation of information, necessary for the performance of such complex cognitive activities as comprehension, learning, and reasoning

Phonological Loop

Phonological Store: holds small amount of speech based information




Articulatory Control Process: based on inner speech

Phonological Similarity Effect

Recall of characters or words is impaired if they are phonologically similar


-works for both visual and auditory presentation

Irrelevant Speech Effect

Performance on memory tasks is impaired if items are accompanied by other verbal material


-"one, two," "tun, woo"

Word Length Effect

Memory should be better for shorter words

Articulatory Suppression

Word length effect is abolished by articulatory suppression

Visuo-Spatial Sketchpad

Stores and manipulates visual-spatial information

Central Executive

Coordinates the activity of the two storage systems


-coordinating retrieval strategies


-selective attention


-suppression of habitual responses

Episodic Buffer

A limited capacity temporary storage system that is capable of integrating information from a variety of sources


-controlled by CE


-link between Working Memory and LTM

Prefrontal Cortex

Maintaining task relevant information over the short-term


-especially when there is interference

Primary Memory

The set of things we are currently aware of, including the recent past

Secondary Memory

The set of things we could remember if we wanted to

Broadbent's Model

Explicit model of memory


-S-system: sensory system


-P-system: consciousness


-Secondary memory: everything else


-limited capacity STM


-unlimited capacity LTM

Memory Span

Number of items we can recite back perfectly without error 50% of the time


-typically around 7 +/- 2 items

Structural Components

Sensory, register, STM, LTM

Processing Components

Control processes that operate on STM

STM

-limited capacity buffer


-short duration


-new information bumps out older information


-need to rehearse items in STM to transfer to LTM

LTM

-unlimited capacity


-durable


-includes all memories


-information never bumper out or lost


-information forgotten via interference or search failures


-information needs to be retrieved from LTM back into STM for report

Modal Model Account of Primacy

Primacy effect due to the fact that the first few items get more rehearsals than other items

Modal Model Account of Recency

Recency effect due to the fact that items presented at the end of the list are still in STM at the time of recall


-due to STM


-negative recency in Final Free Recall


-long-term recency: president's

Amnesia

Anterograde: inability to learn new information following brain trauma




Retrograde: inability to remember information learned prior to brain trauma

Consolidation

Neurophysiological activity presumed to be necessary after study if a memory is to be solidified into a relatively permanent form


-mental inactivity leads to better retention


-cockroach maze

Decay

Memory traces fade spontaneously with time


-law os disuse


-the longer the representation has gone without being used, the more it has weakened


-little actual evidence

Interference Theory

Interference from similar items in memory accounted for most forgetting


-interference


-altered stimulus conditions (context)


-set (mindset)

Retroactive Interference vs. Proactive Interference

Retroactive: new information interferes with ability to recall old information




Proactive: old information interferes with ability to recall new information

Response Competition

When two or more items are potential responses for the cue

Search Failures

Inability to find what you are looking for

Cue Overload

The more information that is subsumed under a given retrieval cue, the lower the probability of retrieving any given piece of information

List-Length Effects

As list-length increases, probability correct decreases