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36 Cards in this Set

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What does the Endocrine System do?
Secretes chemicals= hormones

Controls body activities
What is the master gland?
the pituitary
What does the pituitary gland do?
produces hormones & controls most other endocrine glands
What does the pineal body do?
controls sexual development, mood & sleep
Adrenal Glands (Fight or Flight) do what?
All about "stress and steroids"
What are Gonads?
Male & female sex glands
What are the female gonads?
2 Ovaries
What are the male gonads?
2 Testes
Function of Thyroid gland?
Controls metabolism
Parathyroid: how many & its location?
4 glands

Embedded in thyroid gland
Function of parathyroid?
Control calcium & phosphorus
Islets of Langerhans found where?
Pancreas
What do islets of Langerhans do?
Produces--> Insulin & Glucagon
Difference between insulin & glucagon?
Insulin lowers blood glucose/sugar

Glucagon raises blood glucose/sugar
Hyperthyroidism?
Overactive thyroid
S&S of hyperthyroid
irritability, nervousness, weight loss & heat intolerance
Tx of hyperthyroid
Remove the thyroid
Hypothyroid?
under secretion
S&S of hypothyroid?
fatigue, weight gain, & cold intolerance

causes simple goiter
Tx of hypothyroid
Managed w/ drugs
Hypersecretion of parathyroid hormones?
hypercalcemia

kidney stones

loss of bone calcium
Hyposecretion of parathyroid hormones?
abnormal muscle-nerve interaction

severe muscle spasms (tetany)

Calcium replacements needed
Adrenal gland function?
stress & steroids
Underactive Adrenal gland?
Addison's Disease --> causes stress intolerance
Overactive Adrenal gland?
Cushing's Syndrome--> causes edema & weight gain
What is diabetes mellitus?
Metabolism disorder
too much glucose (sugar in blood) due to problems w/ insulin production
Types of Diabetes?
Type I (IDDM) Insulin dependent

Type II (NIDDM) not insulin dependent
What is Type 1 Diabetes
pancreas produces little or no insulin at all

seen more in young people

external source of insulin needed
What are the 4 cardinal S&S of type 1 diabetes?
Polydipsia --> excessive thirst

Polyuria --> excessive urination

Glycosuria --> sugar in urine

Polyphagia --> excessive hunger
What is Type 2 Diabetes
pancreas produces insulin, just not enough

adult onset; after 45 yrs

managed by diet, exercise & oral hypoglycemics
S&S of Type 2 diabetes
easily fatigued

infections

slow healing

itching

burning upon urination

vision changes

obesity
Hyperglycemia "Diabetic Coma"
caused by undiagnosed diabetes

skipped insulin injections

noncompliance w/ diet

infection

stress
Hypoglycemia "Insulin Shock"
caused by excessive insulin

delayed/skipped meals

insufficient food

excessive exercise
CNA care for diabetic patient?
know S&S of hypo/hyperglycemia
monitor I&O
Personal hygiene (foot care!)
Infection control
Monitor/report problems
Headache, drowsiness, confusion
sweet fruity breath
deep, labored breathing
full bounding pulse
low BP
N&V
Dry, Hot, Flushed Skin
Weakness, Unconsciousness
Sugar in urine
HIGH blood sugar
HYPERglycemia
hunger, weakness, dizziness, shakiness
Cold, Moist, Clammy skin
rapid, shallow respirations
nervousness & excitement
rapid pulse
unconsciousness
NO sugar in urine
LOW blood sugar
HYPOglycemia