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36 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
What does the Endocrine System do?
Secretes chemicals= hormones

Controls body activities
What is the master gland?
the pituitary
What does the pituitary gland do?
produces hormones & controls most other endocrine glands
What does the pineal body do?
controls sexual development, mood & sleep
Adrenal Glands (Fight or Flight) do what?
All about "stress and steroids"
What are Gonads?
Male & female sex glands
What are the female gonads?
2 Ovaries
What are the male gonads?
2 Testes
Function of Thyroid gland?
Controls metabolism
Parathyroid: how many & its location?
4 glands

Embedded in thyroid gland
Function of parathyroid?
Control calcium & phosphorus
Islets of Langerhans found where?
What do islets of Langerhans do?
Produces--> Insulin & Glucagon
Difference between insulin & glucagon?
Insulin lowers blood glucose/sugar

Glucagon raises blood glucose/sugar
Overactive thyroid
S&S of hyperthyroid
irritability, nervousness, weight loss & heat intolerance
Tx of hyperthyroid
Remove the thyroid
under secretion
S&S of hypothyroid?
fatigue, weight gain, & cold intolerance

causes simple goiter
Tx of hypothyroid
Managed w/ drugs
Hypersecretion of parathyroid hormones?

kidney stones

loss of bone calcium
Hyposecretion of parathyroid hormones?
abnormal muscle-nerve interaction

severe muscle spasms (tetany)

Calcium replacements needed
Adrenal gland function?
stress & steroids
Underactive Adrenal gland?
Addison's Disease --> causes stress intolerance
Overactive Adrenal gland?
Cushing's Syndrome--> causes edema & weight gain
What is diabetes mellitus?
Metabolism disorder
too much glucose (sugar in blood) due to problems w/ insulin production
Types of Diabetes?
Type I (IDDM) Insulin dependent

Type II (NIDDM) not insulin dependent
What is Type 1 Diabetes
pancreas produces little or no insulin at all

seen more in young people

external source of insulin needed
What are the 4 cardinal S&S of type 1 diabetes?
Polydipsia --> excessive thirst

Polyuria --> excessive urination

Glycosuria --> sugar in urine

Polyphagia --> excessive hunger
What is Type 2 Diabetes
pancreas produces insulin, just not enough

adult onset; after 45 yrs

managed by diet, exercise & oral hypoglycemics
S&S of Type 2 diabetes
easily fatigued


slow healing


burning upon urination

vision changes

Hyperglycemia "Diabetic Coma"
caused by undiagnosed diabetes

skipped insulin injections

noncompliance w/ diet


Hypoglycemia "Insulin Shock"
caused by excessive insulin

delayed/skipped meals

insufficient food

excessive exercise
CNA care for diabetic patient?
know S&S of hypo/hyperglycemia
monitor I&O
Personal hygiene (foot care!)
Infection control
Monitor/report problems
Headache, drowsiness, confusion
sweet fruity breath
deep, labored breathing
full bounding pulse
low BP
Dry, Hot, Flushed Skin
Weakness, Unconsciousness
Sugar in urine
HIGH blood sugar
hunger, weakness, dizziness, shakiness
Cold, Moist, Clammy skin
rapid, shallow respirations
nervousness & excitement
rapid pulse
NO sugar in urine
LOW blood sugar