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84 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back

Efforts to master, reduce or tolerate the demands caused by stress in one's life are collectively known as:


A condition or event that an experimenter varies to see its impact on another variable is called a ________ variable.


A researcher wants to determine whether diet causes children to learn better in schools. In this study, the independent variable is

The type of diet

A correlation coefficient indicates the _____ and the ______ of the relationship between two variables.

Strength; direction

Albert Bandura differed from other behaviorists in that he gave an important role to _______ in influencing human behavior.


Which of the following psychologists said "personality is determined to a large extent by a person's genes"?

Hans Eysenck

The "Fight or Flight" response was first described by:

Walter Cannon

Post-traumatic stress disorder involves

Psychological disturbance due to the experience of a major traumatic event

Albert Ellis believes that problematic emotional reactions to stress are caused by:

Catastrophic thinking

Constructive coping involves all of the following except

Being less realistic in your appraisal of your coping resources

When Taylor returned from a difficult deployment in the Army, he reevaluated his priorities and decided to go back to school. He is most likely experiencing:

Post-traumatic growth

Defense mechanisms are most often _____ and entirely ______

Unconscious; normal

Which of the following is the best definition of psychology?

The study of behavior and the profession that applies knowledge from these studies to solving practical problems

A positive correlation coefficient indicates that two variables co-vary in the ________, and a negative coefficient indicated that the variables co-vary in the ________

Same direction; opposite direction

Case studies

Can provide general conclusions through consistencies between cases

Which of the following is not one of the three levels of awareness proposed by Freud?

Collective unconscious

The humanistic theorist who emphasized the need for self-actualization and the hierarchical organization of needs was

Abraham Maslow

One's belief about one's ability to preform behaviors that should lead to expected outcomes is called:


One accepted definition of stress is:

Any circumstance that threatens well-being and taxes coping abilities

One challenge faced by members of ethnic minorities in dealing with everyday discrimination is that manifestations of everyday discrimination are often:


Which of the following does the textbook cite as a weakness of the biological approached to personality?

The complicated interactions of heredity and environment

The leading cause of death in North America is

Heart disease

Beth's doctor says she is at a high risk for coronary disease. This is most likely related to her:

A. Smoking

B. High blood pressure

C. Diabetes

All of the above

Which of the following is known to be the principal cause of coronary heart disease?


_________ is the gradual narrowing of the coronary arteries


The name of the condition when the heart is temporarily deprived of adequate blood flow is:

Myocardial ischemia

The immune response is

The body's defensive reaction to invasion

The most likely explanation for people's tendency to act in self destructive ways is that

Many health-impairing habits involve activities that are quite pleasant at the time

According to E. Tory Higgins, which of the following is NOT one of the three types of self-perceptions that people have?


A women who describes herself as "frank and honest" but who, in fact, lies frequently is manifesting her


If you are feeling anxious because you know that you should have visited your sick great aunt in the convalescent home over the holidays, you are experiencing a discrepancy between your actual self and your ______ self


______ is the process of forming impressions of others

Person perception

Internal attributions ascribe causes of behavior to

Personal dispositions

External attributions ascribe causes of behavior to

Situational factors

Which of the following statements is NOT true about self-fulfilling prophecies?

The effect of self-fulfilling prophecies is limited to education settings

In general, prejudice is ________ and discrimination is _______

An attitude; a behavior

Elements in the communication process include all of the following except

Personal space

The size of an individual's personal space is related to which of the following?

A. Social status

B. Personality

C. Age

D. All of the above

Betty has low self-esteem. Her friend urged Betty to join Facebook to help her form connections with others. What is most likely to happen?

Betty's self-disclosure will be too high in negativity and lead to undesired reactions

The root of communication apprehension is thought to be

The interpretation of one's own physiological reactions

Close relationships can arouse both positive and negative feelings. This phenomenon is termed

Paradox of close relationships

Elena is very caring toward her friend Monique. She spends a lot of time texting with her, especially when Monique was going through a rough time in her marriage. When Monique forgave husbands for bad behavior, Elena felt despair and anger with Monique for giving in. These feelings exemplify:

The paradox of close relationships

Which of the following is NOT a factor influencing the nature of initial encounters between two people?

Resource exchange

Which of the following is NOT true about the role of physical attractiveness in relationships?

The importance of physical attractiveness in a dating partner has decreased in the last 50 years

Heterosexual married and dating couples tend to be similar in all of the following ways EXCEPT


The idea the interpersonal relationships are governed by perceptions of rewards and costs is a key premise in

Social exchange theory

Susan and Manny's relationship is characterized by warmth, closeness and sharing. Their relationship would be considered high in which of the following?


Alicia and Michael have thought seriously about splitting up on several occasions. The fact that they're still together indicated a high level of _____ in their relationship


According to Hazan and Shaver

Adult romantic relationships are similar to attachment relationships in infancy

Hazan and Shaver found that, like infants in their attachment relationships, adults fall into the following three categories in their love relationships

Avoidant, anxious-ambivalent, secure

Which statement more accurately reflects the current state of marriage in modern Western society?

It remains popular but appears to be under assault from changes in society

It is estimated that up to _______ of the world practices arranged marriage


Research suggests that polygamy is

Related to lower self-esteem and unhappiness for wives

In terms of what they look for in a marital partner, men place a higher value than women on which of the following?

A. Ambition

B. Intelligence

C. Financial prospects

D. Youthfulness

As a child, Daniel was generally smiling in photos. This indicated that his marital success is

More likely

Monique is in the first family life cycle stage. She is

An unattached young adult between families

Research indicates that

A. The negative effects of divorce on psychological well being is similar for men and women

B. Post divorced adjustment is more favorable with a higher income

C. Forgiveness of an ex-spouse is correlated with lower depression

D. All of the above

Research on homosexual couples suggest that

A. There are rarely long-term relationships

B. Relationships are more prone to breakups than heterosexual marriages

C. Gays of both genders face more barriers to dissolution

D. All of the above

Which of the following statements about cohabitating couples are NOT true?

Cohabitating relationships tend to be more stable than marital relationships

Which of the following is NOT true regarding the challenges to traditional views of marriage?

People are not as interested in monogamous relationships now

Scholars often use _____ to refer to male-to-female differences that are learned and _______ to designate biological differences

Gender; sex

If Bruce is a stereotypical male, he will generally be:


Which of the following is NOT associated with the gender similarities hypothesis?

Overinflated claims of gender differences do not affect relationships?

It appears that boys engage in more ______ aggression and girls engage in more ______ aggression

Physical; relational

Margie tends to interrupt others at work frequently. Given research in communication and gender differences we can guess that Margie

is in management

Which of the following researchers proposed the social role theory?

Alice Eagly

The overall evidence suggests that biological factors play a relatively minor role in gender differences, creating predispositions that are largely shaped by

The way males and females are socialized

Cultural expectations about what is appropriate for each gender are called

Gender roles

Gender role socialization occurs through

A. Self-socialization

B. Observational learning

C. Reinforcement and punishment

D. All of these plays a part the acquisition of gender roles

Which of the following has NOT been shown to influence gender role socialization?


_______ is comprised of personal qualities, self perceptions, attitudes, values and preferences that guide an individual's sexual behavior

Sexual identity

Which of the following is NOT a key feature of sexual identity?

Sexual differentiation

______ are the principal class of female sex hormones; _______ are the principal class of male sex hormones

Estrogens; androgens

According to Masters and Johnson, the four phases of the sexual response cycle are

Excitement, plateau, orgasm, resolution

A body area that is sexually sensitive or responsive is a called a/an

Erogenous zone

Which of the following terms does NOT belong with the others?


Sodomy is the legal term for

Anal sex

Which of the following statements about condoms is accurate

A. Polyurethane condoms are impervious to oil based creams and lotions

B. If used correctly, the condom is highly effective in preventing pregnancy

C. Condoms made of animal membranes don't protect against sexually transmitted diseases

D. All of the above statements are accurate

There are about ______ different sexually transmitted diseases


Which of the following is a good suggestion for engaging in safer sex?

A. Avoid engaging in anal intercourse

B. Don't have sex with someone who has had a lot of previous partners

C. Wash your genitals with sop and water before and after sex

D. All of the above

Proposes that it isuseful to think of abnormal behavior as a disease

The medical model

Global, pervasiveresponses to experiences


Are powerful, largelyuncontrollable feelings, accompanied by physiological changes


A social andintellectual movement within the discipline of psychology that focuses on humanstrengths and how people can flourish and be successful