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15 Cards in this Set

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Conventional wisdom on Immigration and Crime
• Social variables and risk factors that predict crime are characteristic and indicative of immigrant communities
• Socioeconomic status
• Educational attainment
• Alcohol and illicit substance misuse
• Social disorganization
• Family size
Which factors unique to immigrants status act to retard conventional wisdom?
• Culturally based protective factors
• Such as traditional family structures
• Community homogeneity
Immigrants tend to settle in disorganized neighborhoods characterized by deleterious structural conditions
1. Poverty
2. Ethnic heterogeneity
3. A preponderance of young males
4. More criminal opportunities in the forms of gangs
5. Cultural codes that may conflict with the legal codes constructed by native groups
immigration might not create disorganized communities but instead stabilizes communities
1. Contemporary immigration stabilizes communities through the creation of new social and economic institutions
2. Immigrants reside in highly impoverished communities but provide a buffer to further neighborhood decline
3. This is accomplished through higher levels of intact and extended families
4. And regular contact with the world of work
Which publications marked a turning point in the study of female criminality?
1. 1975 of Frida Adler’s Sisters in Crime

2. 1975 of Rita Simon’s Women in Crime
How is female criminality viewed prior to 1975?
1. Criminologist focused on biological differences between men and women.

2. Criminologists Lumbroso thought female criminals were born criminal w/ masculine and primitive characteristics.

3. He(Lumbroso) reasoned most women did not possess masculine or primitive characteristics.

4. Therefore women were less likely than men to commit crimes

5. Criminologist Pollak didn’t agree that women committed fewer crimes than men.

6. He(Pollak) believed females crimes were difficult to detect and easily hidden.

7. Some female crimes which were difficult to detect included shoplifting, abortion, and domestic thefts.

8. Pollak believed that this hidden or masked character of female criminality was apart of womens
How did Adler and Simons 1975 publication change the way female criminality is studied?
1. They placed emphasis on female social roles instead of biological differences between men and women.

2. There explanations were sociological and contextual.

3. They believed that increased liberation from the womens movement expanded female social roles.

4. This expansion of female social roles increased criminal opportunities for women.

5. They both supported the gender convergence rationale for explaining criminality.
What is the gender convergence rationale for explaining criminality?
1. They placed emphasis on female social roles instead of biological differences between men and women.

2. There explanations were sociological and contextual.

3. They believed that increased liberation from the womens movement expanded female social roles.

4. This expansion of female social roles increased criminal opportunities for women.

5. They both supported the gender convergence rationale for explaining criminality.

What is the gender convergence rationale for explaining criminality?

1. Females become equivalent to males in their social and economic roles

2. The criminal behaviors of males and females began to converge.

Where did Adler and Simon disagree?

1.Adler believed the increase in female criminality was concentrated in violent crime.

2. Adler suggests the women movement led to the masculinization of female behavior.

3. This increased aggressiveness among women.

4. Which led to them committing more violent crimes.
This theory calls for a black criminology that includes the following precepts
that it (the theory) derives from the lived experiences of blacks; understands that past and present lived experiences of blacks have created a shared worldview; this worldview is unlike the worldview of Whites or other minorities; this worldview has been shaped by incomparable racial subordination; this worldview is shaped by unmatched experiences with subtle and profound racial injustices; that the development of a black criminology must center explanations of black offending within a racially stratified society; that it borrows from the way feminist criminologists center their explanation of female offending in the unique lived experiences of women in a gender-stratified society; that it fundamentally disagrees with the assumption that underlies all general theories of crime, which is that African Americans, Whites, and other minorities offend for identical reasons, and; although there are factors related to crime regardless of the offenders race or ethnicity; this theory is in agre
Collective Efficacy Theory
Collective efficacy is defined as social cohesion among neighbors combined with their willingness to intervene on behalf of the common good. Based on this theory, crime more likely occurs in areas where neighbors are not involved in the collective well being of their neighborhood.
Social Control Theory
There are four key bonds that keep people from engaging in crime. These bonds are attachment, commitment, involvement, and belief.
The four bonds of Social Control Theory
attachment: which suggests that people who are attached to their spouses, family, and friends are less likely to engage in deviant behavior; commitment: which suggests that people who are committed to conventional activities such as education and career are less likely to offend; involvement: which suggests that people who are involved in positive community activities are less likely to engage in crime; and belief: which suggests that people who believe in the legitimacy of the law and authority are less likely to offend.
Strain Theory
America holds up goals for all citizens to aspire to and these goals mostly take the form of monetary success (financial success). There are legitimate means to attain these goals, which include education, hard work, delayed gratification and conventional jobs. However, these legitimate means are not attainable to all citizens and lower classes have few chances to get wealth legitimately. Strain happens when the social structure limits ability to reach cultural goals.
People respond to this strain in five ways
they conform by always trying to reach the goal through legitimate ways; they become innovative by relying on illegal means to reach the goal; they become ritualistic by working hard but not trying to reach the goal; they retreat by dropping out of society, becoming homeless or turning to drugs and alcohol; and they rebel by rejecting the cultural goal and legitimate means and trying to change or replace both
Differential Association Theory
This theory suggests that crime is learned. Crime is learned the same way all other behavior is learned, which is from people close to you. People close to you provide definitions concerning law breaking or law keeping.