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41 Cards in this Set

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What sinuses are present at birth?
maxillary and ethmoid
Why do you percuss the face?
to check for hypercalcemia
Define Sinusitis
Infection of one or more paranasal sinus bc of upper respiratory infection, allergies, structural defect.

SIGNS: fever, purulent drainage, sinus pain/pressure, no response to decongestants
Define Caput Seccedaneum
"Cone Head"

Edema after birth that crosses suture lines
Cephalohematoma
Sucperiosteol blood that doesn't cross suture lines
Plagiocephaly
"Paralellogram Head"

Flattened or asymmetrical shape to skull
Craniosynostosis
Closure of one or more suture before growth complete = mishappen skull
Hydrocephalus
swelling of head
Encephalocele
Nerve tissue comes out of skull
Microcephaly
Small head
Fetal Alcohol Syndrome
mental retardation, widespread eyes, ptosis, short nose, thin lip, poorly formed philtrum
Hurler Syndrome
Enlarged skull, low forehead, corneal clouding, short neck, muccopolysaccharide storage disease
Down Syndrome
Epicanthal folds, depressed nasal bridge, slant of eyes, low set ears, macroglossia (big tongue)
Hippocratic Facies
Sunken Facial Features, dry skin (usually seen in late stages of terminal illness)

Think Hippocrates
Cushing Syndrome
Moon Facies, Thin skin

Associated with adrenal tumors = inc. production of glucocorticoids
What is the largest endocrine gland of the body
Thyroid

Enlarged thyroid = vascular bruit may be heard
Graves Disease
Hyperthyroidism

Autoimmune, Abs to TSH receptor

Signs: GOITER, Expothalmos, facial flushing, sensitivity to heat, tachycardia, weight loss
Myxedema
skin and tissue disorder because of severe prolonged hypothyroidism

Signs: sparse hair, edema around eyes, puffy yellow skin, cognitive impairment,
Hashimoto Disease
HypOthyroidism

"HashimOtO = HypO

Signs: lethargy, sensitivity to cold, weight gain, scaly dry skin, puffy eyes
Congenital Hypothyroidism
Signs: Jaundice, poor feeding, lack of muscle tone (floppy baby), puffy face
What does tracheal tugging suggest?
The presence of an aortic aneurysm
Thyroglossal Duct Cyst
Midline palpable cystic mass in neck
Branchial Cleft Cyst
Lesion at birth bc of oncomplete involution of branchial cleft along anteromedial border of SCM
Torticollis
may be due to birth trauma, tumors, cranial nerve palsy, muscle spasm, infection, drug ingestion

May Cause Plagiocephaly
Nuchal Rigidity is associated with ?
Meningeal Irritation
Lymph system fully matures by when?
9-12 years
What are some causes of lymphadenopathy?
mono, TB, lymphoma, cat scratch fever
T/F: Enlarged postauricular, occipital is not unusual in kids less than 2.
TRUE
What happens to lymph nodes in adults?
Lymph nodes diminish and some may become fibrotic
What do the semicircular canals do?
Respond to changes in direction of movement and send signals to cerebellum for maintenance of balance
Whats the difference between children's and adult's Eustachian Tubes?
Children's = wider, shorter, more horizontal
Presbycusis
Gradual loss of sensorineural hearing, common after 65. high freq. sounds go first
Vertigo
Unsteadiness, loss of balance, syncope
Tophi
gout, deposits of urate crystal
Acute Otis Media
Middle Ear Inflammation

Signs: TM erythmatous, bulging, cloudy, no movement

Abrupt onset of fever, anorexia, hearing loss, dizziness, vomiting, diarrhea, pain
Otitis Media with effusion
Inflammation of middle ear due to serous, mucoid, or purulent fluid

Signs: TM retracted or bulging, impaired mobility, yellowish air-fluid levels and/or bubbles

CRACKING Sound on yawning/swallowing.
Otis Externa (Swimmer's Ear)
Infection of auditory canal from trauma or moist environment = bacterial or fungal growth

Pain worsens with movement of pinna or chewing
Cholesteatoma
Benign, cyst-like tumor in eardrum or middle ear

Signs: progressive hearing loss, fullness in ear, tinnitus, vertigo

If untreated can erode temporal bone = permanent hearing loss
Otosclerosis
Hereditary condition that causes sensorineural hearing loss due to hardening of ossicles
Labyrinthitis
Inflamation of labyrinthine canal due to complications from upper respiratory viral or bacterial infection

Signs: vertigo, tinnitus, nystagmus, nausea, anxiety
Mastoiditis
Post-auricular/ Mastoid pain

Signs: fever, swelling, outward or downwardly placed pinna