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60 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back

Is a method of inducing changes in a person’s thoughts, behaviors, and feelings.

Psychological Intervention

involves intervention in the context of professional relationship – a relationship sought by the client or the client’s guardians.


is undertaken to solve a specific problem or to improve the individual’s capacity to deal with existing behaviors, feelings, or thoughts that impair functioning at work, school, or in relationships.


is considered efficacious to the extent that the average person receiving the treatment in clinical trials is demonstrated to be significantly less dysfunctional than the average person not receiving any treatment


place a premium on internal validity by controlling the types of clients in the study, by standardizing the treatments, and by randomly assigning patients to treatment or no treatment groups

Efficacy studies

emphasize external validity and the representativeness of the treatment that is administered.

Effectiveness Studies

is considered effective to the extent that clients report clinically significant benefit from it.


summarized the results of a survey of4,000 readers who had sought treatment for a psychological problem from a mental health professional, family doctor, or self-help group during the years 1991–1994.

Consumer Reports (“Mental Health,” 1995)

originally called empirically supported or empirically validated treatment

-refers to those interventions or techniques that have produced significant change in clients and patients in controlled trials.

Evidence-based treatment (EBT;

Is a broader category in that it includes treatments informed by a number of sources, including scientific evidence about the intervention, clinical expertise, and patient needs and preferences(APA, 2006; Kazdin, 2008).

Evidence-based practice (EBP)

a division of the American Psychological Association, disseminated criteria to evaluate whether specific approaches to treatment had established scientific support to suggest that they could reduce psychological symptoms.

Society of Clinical Psychology,


Categories of Therapeutic approaches

Well Established

Probably Efficacious

Experimental or Possibly Efficacious


differences in effects between evidence-based treatments and other approaches were not due to the tendency for studies of evidence-based approaches to involve

(1) more active homework assignments;

(2) research therapists;

(3) fewer comorbid samples;

(4) university-based settings;

(5) samples with less severe psychopathology; or

(6) fewer ethnic minority youth.


Features Common to Many Therapies

1. Relationship/ Therapeutic Alliance

2. The Expert Role

3. Building Competence/ Mastery

4. Nonspecific Factors

Research suggests that the nature of the relationship, or therapeutic alliance between the patient and therapist, is an important element that contributes greatly to the success of psychotherapy.

Relationship/ Therapeutic Alliance

It is assumed that the therapist brings to the therapy situation something more than acceptance, warmth, respect and interest.

The Expert Role

– can only come from a long, arduous period of training.


- In one sense, a goal of most therapies is to make a client a more competent and effective human being.

Building Competence/ Mastery

– it can also be a learning experience in the direct sense of the word.


– he emphasized the importance of self-efficacy in promoting a higher performance level in the individual.


– they feel confident, expect to do well, or just feel good about themselves.

Sense of Mastery

Call it faith, hope or expectations for increased competence – successful therapy tends to be associated with such nonspecific factors.

Nonspecific Factors -

– an active, dynamic process; passivity and lack of motivation can be obstacles.



FACTORS in psychotherapy

1. Nature of the patient 2. Therapist 3. Patient- therapist interaction

A broad generalization often made by clinicians is that the individuals who need therapy the least are the people who will receive the greatest benefit from it.

The Degree of Patient’s Distress -

– this is between patient’s feelings of disturbance and their overt behavioral disturbance.

Truax and Carkhuff’s Distinction

- This distinction implies to many clinicians that a good prognosis may be expected for a patient who is experiencing distress or anxiety but is functioning well behaviorally.

Truax and Carkhuff’s Distinction

they contend that the relationship between improvement and initial disturbance is curvilinear.

Miller and Gross –

- Some therapeutic approaches require a great deal of talking, articulation of past experiences, insights and introspection.


- Other things being equal, young adults have long been considered the best bets for therapy, as compared to other adults.


- Psychotherapy is sometimes a lengthy and arduous process. It demands much from a patient. It can be fraught with anxiety, setbacks, and periods of a seeming absence of progress.


- Most therapies intuitively attach a better prognosis to patients who seem to show some respect for optimism about the utility of psychotherapy.


- Research does not support the view that biological sex of the client is significantly related to outcome in psychotherapy


– suggested that greater rapport and self- exploration may occur when both therapist and patient are of the same race.


(1964) – described the psychotherapists belief in the ideal patient as the YAVIS syndrome.



YAVIS Syndrome

Y- Young A- Attractive V- Verbal I- Intelligent S- Successful


Paniagua provides a number of general guidelines and considerations:

1. Acculturation

2. Language Barriers -

3. Overdiagnosis

4. Extended Family

5. Type of Theory

6. Amount of Data Collected

7. Definition of “therapist”

– refers to the degree of integration of new cultural patterns into the original cultural patterns.


- although it is ideal to avoid the use of a translator if at all possible, in some cases, a translator is necessary.

Language Barriers

– clinicians must guard against inaccurately viewing behaviors of members of multicultural groups simply because these are unfamiliar and unusual.


– clinicians should rely on the client’s definition of extended family before enlisting others to aid in the client’s treatment.

Extended Family

– directive, active and structured therapies are generally preferred by African Americans, Native Americans, Hispanics and Asian Americans.

Type of Theory

clinicians should avoid collecting massive amounts of data early on in the assessment or treatment process.

Amount of Data Collected

– it is important to understand the client’s definition of the term “therapist.” The term may be equated with “physician”, “medicine man/ woman” or “folk healer.”

Definition of “therapist”

- In the best of all worlds, it would make no difference whether or not the patient was an engaging person who elicited positive responses from others.

Therapists’ Reaction to Patients

– recognized the potential effects of the psychoanalyst’s personality on the process of psychoanalysis. To “prevent” such personal factors from affecting the process, he recommended that analysts undergo periodic analyses so that they could learn to recognize and control them.


– turned to the other side of the same coin and made therapist qualities such as acceptance and warmth the cornerstones of therapy.


– has suggested that a major factor that differentiates successful from unsuccessful therapists is their interest in people and their commitment to the patient.


is an important quality in the therapist. Therapists must be able to look at their patients with objectivity and not become entangled in their personal dynamics. Nor is the therapy room a place for the gratification of one’s own emotional needs.











1. Precontemplation

2. Contemplation

3. Preparation

4. Action

5. Maintenance

6. Termination

At this stage, the client has no intention of changing his or her behavior in the near future.


At this stage, a client is aware that a problem exists but has not yet committed him- or herself to trying to make changes.


: Here, a client intends to make a change in the near future.


: At this stage, clients are changing their maladaptive behaviors, emotions, and/or their environment. It is estimated that 10 to 20% are in this stage.


: At this stage, the client works on preventing relapses and on furthering the gains that have been made during the action stage.


: Here, the client has made the necessary changes, and relapse is no longer a threat.


A major comparative study was conducted by Sloane, Staples, Cristol, Yorkston, and Whipple (1975a, 1975b).

The Temple University Study.

. In 1977, Smith and Glass published a review of nearly 400 psychotherapy outcome studies.



Recent Trends

1. Focus of Psychotherapy Research

2. Practice Guidelines

3. Manualized Treatment.