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62 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
Beck Depression Inventory
What does BDI stand for?
What is BDI?
created by Dr. Aaron T. Beck, is a twenty-one question multiple choice self-report inventory that is one of the most widely used instruments for measuring the severity of depression.
What areas should you get information on for your interview?

(there are 6)
1. the history of parents and grandparents
2. early childhood
3. school years
4. adolescence
5. adult life
6. family information
questions you should ask about the history of parents and grandparents
-tell me about your parents' lives
-what can you tell me about your grandparents' lives
-inquire about their lives before and after marriage, including important events in their life, their childhood, education, occupation, ethnic and religious background. If they leave out a parent or grandparent, inquire about them
questions you should ask about early childhood (before school)
-what do you know about yourself as a baby
-what was your mother's pregnancy like
-were there any family stories or jokes about what you were like as a child
-what are your earliest childhood memories
-what do you remember or know about major early events in your life - like eating habits, walking, talking, and toilet training
-were there any stresses in your family at that time
questions you should ask about school years
-what were your early years in school like
-do you remember the very first day of school
-how did you do at school work through the years
-what were your relationships like with your teachers and schoolmates
-who were your friends and what sorts of things did you do with them
questions you should ask about adolescence
-what was you adolescence like
-how was your social and school life at that time
-when did you mature sexually, and what was that time of your life like for you
-what was your relationship with your friends like at that time
-what was your relationship with your family at that time
-when did you start to date, and what were those relationships like
questions you should ask about adult life (including college)
-what has been important about your adult life
-what have your adult relationships with friends and co- workers been like
-what has your relationship with your (husband/wife, fiancee, boyfriend/girlfriend) been like
-what types of jobs have you worked at, and what did you think about those jobs
-what was college like for you
-what hobbies or other interests do you have
questions you should ask about family information
-what has your family been like over the years
-tell me about your brothers and sisters (age, education, marital status, their relationship with the interviewee)
--how would you describe the personalities of the people in your family
-what role did each parent take in raising you
-were there any emotional problems in the family, or conflicts between family members
-did your family ever move, what was that like
-what is the ethnic background of your family
-what has been your religious upbringing, and your attitudes about religion
-describe your own family (relationship with children, how children relate to each other and spouse, typical activities, etc.)
What background information should you be sure to get?
relationships, educational, medical history, mental health history, substance use, criminal/legal history
what should be included in psychological evaluation?
-purpose for evaluation
-assessment procedures
-background information
-mental status examination
-results of evaluation
-diagnostic impressions or summary/recommendations
reason for: purpose for evaluation
briefly introduce the client/patient and the problem
-begin with a concise demographic picture
-use this section to tell your reader what issues you will address in the body of the report
what to include in the assessment procedures
call it this name instead of tests administered because it allows you to include the MSE and the clinical interview
-be sure to note who gave the tests, the dates the tests were administered, and how long it took
what to include in background information
maintain chronological order whenever possible
-family, educational, social, medical history, previous history of mental health treatment, legal/criminal history, and any substance abuse history
what to include in the mental status examination
-focus on your observations and impressions
-avoid quoting the patient's opinion or his own mood, affect, etc.
-avoid mixing in background information or test information with this section
-general appearance and behavior
-speech and thought
-obsessions and compulsions
-attention and concentration (serial 7s)
-general information
-insight and judgment
-higher cognitive functioning
what to include in results of evaluation
-separate paragraphs in this section by integrating data from the history, mental status exam and behavioral observations with data from all the tests
what to include in diagnostic impressions or summary/recommendations
-begin by specifically answering the questions you posed under "purpose for evaluation"
-elaborate as much as needed to present your conceptualization of the case
-any recommendations for treatment can also go here
Psychological assessment involves 4 stages that overlap
Those stages are...
-Data Collection
-Data Processing
what are the 3 types of psychological evaluations
1. classification
2. description
3. prediction
-traditional goal is to classify by using diagnostic labels (DSM)
Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders I
-glossary of descriptions of 60 diagnostic categories
Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders II
-145 categories, based on psychoanalytic theory
Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders III
-atheoretical, specific # diagnostic criteria, multiaxial system (5 axes), hierarchy (if criteria met for > 1 disorder, diagnosis higher in hierarchy given)
Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders III-R
-changed hierarchy
Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders IV
-based on empirical research of disorders, decision rules, 300+ diagnostic disorders, changes included coding personality disorders and mental retardation on Axis II
Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders IV-TR
-revised the text to include research in the descriptions
criticisms of diagnostic labels
-by giving the problem a label the clinican has not furthered his or her understanding of the problem
-association with a medical model
-poor reliability
-negative social stigma
true positive prediction
predict that a certain behavior will occur and it does
false positive prediction
predict that a certain behavior will occur and it does not
when a behavior predicted to occur, it does
a behavior predicted not to occur ad it doesn't
true negative
used to describe the prediction that, in one case, the person will relapse into alcohol abuse and the person does
false negative
the prediction that the person will relapse but the person stays sober
factors limiting the ability to predict behavior
-base rate problem
-psychologists limited knowledge of wide variety of situational influences that impact the client
base rate problem
over prediction (lots of false positives) when one deals with low base rate events
methods of combining information for making predictions
-clinical method
-statistical method
clinical method
psychologist constructs a model to explain the person's psychological functioning and uses this model to predict how the individual will behave in the future
statistical method
classifying the person based on characteristics he or she shares with others
data collection: 4 basic methods + 1
1. interviews
2. norm-referenced tests
3. observations
4. informal assessment
- examination of life records
what are the "pillars" of psychological assessment
-clinical interview (most common method for collecting data)
-standardized tests(administered the same test same way)
-observation (helps clinician develop hypotheses)
-informal assessments ("testing the limits")
-examination of life records (direct questions)
processing assessment data
-based on theoretical orientation-sign interpretation: behavior is viewed as a sign of some underlying characteristic
-sample interpretation: view assessment as a sample of clients behavior
-correlates: inference between signs and samples
-clinical judgment: clinician's subjective decision making about client
communicating findings: organization of the findings
-identifying information (demographic data)
-reason for referral
-background information
-behavioral observations
-assessment results and interpretation
-summary and recommendations
what are collateral interviews?
another perspective from one of the patients family members

ex. husband/wife, children
clinical interview vs. social conversation characteristics
-different social roles of the two participants (professional vs. "patient")
-settings where the interviews occur
-clinical interview is one-sided
-clinical interview has an objective or purpose
types of clinical interviews
-case history
-diagnostic interview
-mental status exam
-crisis interview
intake interview
-determine the nature of the client's problem
-determine whether or not the psychologist or agency has the resources to help the person
CBT "think" rules to help clients define problems
-behavior (actions that define the problem)
-solution (how might problem be handled differently?)
-positive (focus on client's strengths)
-small steps (think in increments)
-flexible (trial and error)
-future (understanding the problem doesn't help the client change the problem in the future)
psychosocial history
detailed description of the client's background *attitudes/emotional responses to events
diagnostic interview
-elicit information necessary to arrive at a formulation (based on medical model)
-asking a series of questions about the presence or absence of "symptoms"
Mental Status Exam
-comes from a psychiatric tradition
-protocol for organizing one's observations of the client (based on sensorium)
what is included in sensorium?
-general appearance and behavior
-speech and thoughts
crisis interview
-provide reassurance
-assess the problem
-explore potential resources
-goal is to resolve the problem immediately at hand so that a catastrophic outcome is avoided (1-2 sessions)
mutual trust and harmony that characterized a good relationship and it is necessary
techniques for building rapport
-greet the client in a warm and friendly manner
-offering a cup of coffee or water
-be aware of your own cultural biases
communication strategies
-verbal: use open ended questions
-nonverbal: clinician's facial expressions, body posture
-congruence: consistency between verbal and nonverbal information
-listening skills: active- clarification, paraphrase, reflection, summarization
help me understand...
are you saying that...
take what the client has said, rephrase it, and say it back (client is understood)
similar to paraphrasing, but clinician describes emotional component of client's message ("that must make you feel sad")
extension of paraphrasing and reflection; ties together two distinct parts of what the client has said
types of interviews
structured: given as they are
unstructured: very flexible, and open
semi-structured: midpoint between structured and unstructured
interviewing with children
-behavioral checklists
-new set of verbal strategies for children
-developmental considerations: verbal skills, memory, conceptual skills, organizational skills not fully developed
-provide alternatives to verbally answering questions
cultural diversity
-differing communications styles (Native Americans)
-be aware of your own cultural background and experiences
-educate yourself about communication styles
-be willing to modify your characteristic communication style in order to facilitate communication