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30 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back

When do we image a tumor?

Deep tumors that cannot be evaluated

Tumors involving vital structures

Tumors involving bone

Tumors adjacent to bone

Treatment planning

How do we determine tumor type?

Histology or cytology.

How many views should we taken and what technique of imagine would we use for checking metastasis in the lungs?

3 views right and left lateral and dorsoventral using radiography.

What would we use ultrasound and endoscopy for?

Examining internal organs and things

What is schintigraphy?

Administering radio-pharmaceuticals which localise to the area of inflammation or tumor using technetium-99M

Administering radio-pharmaceuticals which localise to the area of inflammation or tumor using technetium-99M

When would we use CT scanning?

CT imaging is used for planning treatment and also useful for lesions in the skull in combination with a contrast agent.

When would we use MRI?

CNS problems. Soft tissues not very helpful with cortical bone etc.

What must we do to all tumors?

Biopsy them!!!

What type of biopsy should not lead to increased incidence of metastasis?

Properly planned and preformed

Things we must take from a biopsy?

Is it something we can ignore

Does it warrant further diagnosis

Epithelial or mesenchymal

Mast cell, lymphoma, soft tissue sarcoma

What type of technique is this?

What type of technique is this?

Dermal punch biopsy

What is an excisional biopsy?

Removal of whole tumor

Benefits of excisional biopsy?

May be curative, tissue margins and orientation evaluated.

When would we do an excisional biopsy?

If tumor is easily removed, area allows wide margins

Downfall of excisional biopsy?

Carries the same risk as removal under anesthetic

What is an incisional biopsy?

Removal of a small piece if hard to get the whole tumor

Downfall of incisional biopsies?

1) Not curative

2) Doesn't represent the entire tissue

3) Complicated further surgery

4)Seeding areas such as the bladder

5)Hemorrhage risk or viscous rupture

How do we properly manage tissue?

Avoid cautery and lasers, crush, dessication

Label correctly and fix

Margins important

Impression smears

Sample without formalin

How can we mark out margins of a tumor?

Inks and dyes, seperate slice in a container

Reasons you might come to the wrong diagnosis with a biopsy?

Poorly fixed/prepared

Poor sampling

Failure to recognize signs

Species inexperience

Lack of orientation

Incomplete requisition

What factors must we consider before taking a biopsy?



Type (Fluid)

Anatomic location

Benefits of cytology of a tumor?

Easily recovered, little disruption to the tumor and surrounding tissues.

Multiple sites can be sample during a single procedure

Rapid mounting and staining

When would we do a needle biopsy?

Remove small core of tumor tissue from solid lesion without surgery.

Advantages of needle biopsy?

Recovers more tissue than needle aspirates.

Tissue retains architecture

Good for inaccessible sites without surgery

Multiple samples removed at single approact.

What are disadvantages of needle biopsies?

More complications post biopsy than fine needle aspirates.

Hemorrhage, oedema etc.

When would we use a skin punch biopsy?

Skin and superficial soft tissue tumors

Benefits of skin punch biopsy?

Recovers lots of tissue compared to FNA

Tissue architecture preserved.

Multiple samples through single approach.

When would we do a bone marrow biopsy?

To diagnose myeloid or lymphoid problems.

Which areas can be used for a bone marrow biopsy and how should animal be place?

Femur, humerus or iliac crest

Femur and humerus lateral recumbency

Sternal for iliac crest.

How do we perform a bone marrow biopsy?

1) Anaesthetise animal

2) Scrub and clip area to be done

3) Stab incision to site

4) Bone needle advanced into site and corkscrewed into bone

5) Stylet removed and 10 ml syringe attached

6) Work quick as bone marrow clots fast

7) Smear like a blood