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10 Cards in this Set

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Synarthroses - Fibrous Joints
Fibrous Joints
Minimal or no movement available
Bony surfaces united by dense fibrous tissue
Suture = thin layer of fibrous tissue (skull)
Gomphosis = peg in a hole with fibrous tissue (tooth)
Syndesmosis (bone surfaces joined by ligament, cord or membrane)
Synarthroses - cartilagenous joints
Cartilaginous Joints (Synchondrosis)
Minimal movement available
Bending and Twisting
Fibrocartilage or hyaline cartilage unites bony surfaces
Symphysis = fibrocartilage (pubis) or hyaline cartilage (1st sternocostal)
Diarthroses (freely movable bony components)
Typical Features:
Joint capsule
Joint cavity
Synovial lining
Synovial fluid
Hyaline cartilage
Accessory Features:
Fat pads
Ligaments & tendons
Neurosensory receptors
Subclassification of Diarthrodial Joints
Hinge - uniaxial, IP's, humeroulnar
Pivot - uniaxial, A-A, radioulnar
Condyloid - biaxial, MCP's, MTP's
Saddle - biaxial, CMC
Plane - multiaxial, carpals, tarsals
Ball and Socket - multiaxial, glenohumeral, hip
Arthrokinematic motion
Arthrokinematic or Accessory Motion
Motion of the joint articular surfaces during osteokinematic or physiologic movement
Not always under voluntary control
Movement is defined as…



Sliding (not found in human joints)
"reverse action" of a muscle
Eccentric Contractions with the distal segment stabilized
Anterior Tibialis at Heel Strike of walking
Gluteus Medius at mid-stance of walking
Muscle synergy
Helping Synergy
Two muscles with common actions, but are also antagonistic to each other
(flexor and extensor carpi radialis cause radial deviation)
True Synergy
The prevention of undesired movement at a joint caused by the contraction of a multi-joint muscle
(Making a Fist
Wrist extensors are active to counteract wrist flexion)
Active insufficiency
Diminished ability of a muscle to produce or maintain active tension
Most common in multi-joint muscles
Flexion of the fingers and wrist
Flexion of the shoulder and elbow
Passive Insufficiency
Limited motion caused by an inactive, antagonistic muscle with insufficient length to permit complete ROM
Hamstrings limiting full hip flexion & knee extension
Compensatory relative flexibility
Seen when a joint is controlled by two or more muscles of differing stiffness
Wrist extension producing finger flexion
Pelvic motion during prone knee flexion