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120 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back


"Wedge Shaped Writing"

- Seen on clay tablets; Gilgamesh was written in


Flood Plain Between the Rivers

-Invaded Often


Legend Centre city of Mesopotamia

Mesopotamian Invasion by Sumerians



Neighbouring city to Uruk


Building at Ur, would have been part of a palace complex. Many lines pointing up to the sky, bringing mortals closer to god- A place of worship


Hero, king of Uruk, associated with Wilderness, A tamer.

1/3 Mortal, 2/3 Divine

Mother is Goddess Ninsun


Wild hairy man. Gilgamesh's companion


Monster/ Guardian of the cedar forest

Clay mask looks like intestines


Aphrodite of Mesopotamia

All who lay with her suffer terrible fates

Has a bull of heaven

Kills Enkidu


Only human to be made immortal (a Noah- survived the great flood)

Features of a Hero (12)

(1) Divine Parentage & Human Parentage

(2) Strange Birth

(3) Threatened at birth

(4) Early Display of Special Powers

(5) Education in exile (often by supernatural beings)

(6) Quest, often involving a seemingly impossible task

(7) Slaying of a monster/powerful opponent

(8) Divine Assistance (and opposition)

(9) Return home, spiritually transformed

(10) Unhappy Domestic arrangements

(11) Strange Death

(12) Undying fame through cult or song

Features of a Hero Overview

Seperation, Initiation, Return


Exaggerated Self Pride

Demonstrated through excessive violence or harsh actions

Herakles (Parentage)

Mother = Alkmene

Father = Zues

Mothers Husband = Amphitryon


Zeus last Mortal lover.

Was raped by Zeus disguised as her husband Amphitryon

Amphitryon was at war avenging the deaths of her brothers after he accidentally killed her father.

Later Amphitryon reappears and also has sex with Alkmene.

Alkmene births twins- Herakles (Zeus) and Iphikles (Amphitryon)

Labour of Alkmene

Delayed by vengeful Hera who had made a promise with Zeus that the baby born of the house of Perseus that night would be a king of Argo. Hera slowed the Birth of Herakles and sped the Birth of Eurystheus

Birth of Herakles

Herakles is born through trickery of Hera resulting in the end of her labour.

Hera is told Alkmene has already delivered a child and then Hera unties Alkmenes cloths and uncrosses her legs allowing her to give birth

Milky Way

When Herakles nurses Hera he hurts her and she pushes him away. Milk sprays forth and forms the milky way.

Herakles and the Snakes

Hera send Snakes into the rooms of Herakles (Zeus) and Iphikles (Amphitryon)

Herakles strangles them.


Herakles Music teachers, killed with a lyre. Herakles is subsequently sent away to Chiro


A wise Centaur different from the others in that he is civilized, can control his desires and is an intellectual. Tutors many heroes. Excellent Archer

Raises Jason, Herakles, Achilles


Hwero, hated by Hera, son of Zeus, 12 Labours (supposed to be 10) Uses bow (tension between things) and club (weapon of savagery)

50 Daughters of Thespius

Herakles sleeps with 49/50 of Thespius's daughters resulting in 49 offspring

Series of tragic relationships



First wife of Herakles, driven mad by Hera Herakles kills Megra and their children

Oracle (also controlled by Hera) tells Herakles that to redeem himself he must serve his enemy Eurystheus. This results in 12 labours

12 Labours

Done to atone for killing of Megara and 3 children (caused by Hera)

Involve confrontations with death and taming of nature.

Herakles completes labours, making the world safer and extends frontiers of world.


Glory, what one hears said about oneself

Song and monuments after death


Glory caused by what Hera did to him

Nemean Lion

First Labour of Herakles.

Skin unpieracable by weapon, Herakles takes lions skin with its own claw.

We can draw parallels to gilgamesh wearing his lions skin after losing enkidu Herakles gets this lion skin after losing his family


The snake raised to defeat Herakles- his second task

Must cauterize each ear after it is cut off or the head will grow back

dips arrows in poison and later in Hydras blood

Marsh of Lerna

Hydra Home

Cerynitian Hind

Must be captured. Faster than a shot arrow. Herakles third labour.

This was chosen as Artemis punishes those who harm the hind- Herakles chases the hind for a long time. Uses satiety, tells artemis the truth

Erymanthian Boar

Fourth Labour of Herakles

Must travel into centaur territory to retrieve boar.

Herakles uses posing arrows and slays the boar and in some legends wounds Chiron

Paintings show Herakles giving the boar to a cowering Eurystheus

Stymphalian Birds

Sixth Labour of Herakles

Were creating a disturbance by pooping everywhere.

feathers hardened like arrows

Uses a slingshot

Uses tiny symbols to lure them

Links Herakles to Cybele's cult

Amazon Queen (Antiope... Hippolyte)

Herakles Ninth Labour

Must either seduce and amazon or kill her (strip her of established identity or take it away entirely) by getting her belt. Amazons strip se;vest of female identity by cutting off breast to better accolade a sheild.

Queen willing to just give heartless the belt, this angers Hera- she convinces the other amazons to attack Herakles, they do and Herakles kills the Queen to escape.

Also battled by Theseus

Geryon (cattle of)

Herakles Tenth Labour.

Must kill the 3 headed 6 armed giant "herdsman of the dead" and a dog. Heartless does this and sets up pillars

Capture of Cerberus

Herakles Twelfth Labour

Herakles is initiated into the Eleusinian Mysteries to learn how to traverse Hades.

Brings bull to Eurystheus who in response hides in his pot.

Herakles returns dog.


After murder of a rival Herakles must atone again, this this to a foreign queen (a woman-shameful)

Many comical stories about the year Herakles and Omphale spent together. She is often seen donning Herakles tiger skin and club


Centaur which tries to rape Deianeria

Killed by Herakles

Blood mixed with blood of Hydra kills Herakles (Wife trying to domesticate)


Man Destroyer"

Second Wife of Herakles

"kills" herakles

In Sophlecles is a good wife and unknowing kills him via Nessus's blood


(Youth) Heras Daughter, Herakles final wife on Mount Olympus after reconcile with Hera and separation of diving/ mortal selves into Hades and onto olympus


Elevation to ficine status; refers to the burning of Herakles and sent to mount olympus

Athena delivers him to olympus

Victorious crown aften pictured


Perseus's Mother

Trapped in tower by father to avoid oracle of son who will kill him


Old hags, grey from birth, one eye and one tooth to share among them


Springs from Medusas head when Perseus cuts it off.

Sometimes product of union between Pegasus and Medusa


Princess of Ethiopia

Found by Perseus chained to a rock

Originally betrothed to Phineus, however is given to Perseus in return for slaying of the sea monster plaguing the ethiopians

Has son Perses with Perseus


Son of Perseus and Andromeda


Father of Danae, imprisons her

Killed by Perseus as per oracle (stray discus)


Famous rider of Pegasus

Fought the amazons

Not content to return divine weapons to the gods ... provokes gods hostility


Part-goat, Part-Lion, Part-Serpent... fire breathing


Three headed hound of the underworld


Young male friend of Herakles (erotic relations)

Abducted by a water nymph who falls in love with him

Hieros Gamos

Sacred marriage between hero and goddess

Theseus Parentage

Mother= Aethra

FatherS= Aegeus (king of athens) AND Poseidon

Threats to Theseus

Robber with a Club

Robber with Trees

Robber with a Sea Turtle

Robber who Wrestles


Hybrid offspring of Pasiphae (Minos wife) and the Cretan Bull

Athenians forces to send a 7 Men 7 Women tribute to the minotaur every 9 years

Killed by Theseus with use of Ariadne's Metis


Minos Wife

Dresses as a cow and has sex with the Cetacean bull producing the minotaur


Minos's Daughter

Gets help from Daedelus to help Thesus (whom she loves) escape the labyrinth to kill the minotaur

Betrays her household, is left on a shore by Thesus

Fate is : Suicide or dionysus or killed by Artemis


Makes stuff.

Makes Labyrinth, cow sex costume, tells Ariadne how to escape labyrinth


Double-headed Axe


Son of Theseus and Amazon Queen Hippolyte

Given by Theseus to his wife Phaedra when he leaves on adventure

Devoted to Aretmis and thus a virgin- refuses to lay with a women, angers Aphrodite

Dragged to his death by his own chariot horses, terrified by a bull sent from poseidon (because of Theseus because of Phaedra)


Wife of Theseus, Sister of Ariadne

Charged with care of hippolytus

Desires Hippolytus and is rebuked- accuses him of rape and commits suicide



Lots of adventures with robbers

Minotaur slayer

Leaver of Women on Beaches

Amazon Conqueror

Father of Hippolytus

Indirect Murderer of Hippolytus

Kidnaps Helen- brings wrath of Spartans

Tries to kidnap Persephone

Bound to a chair in underworld (by hades)

Freed by Herakles

Falls or is pushed of a cliff and dies


Friend of Theseus

Kings of Lapiths

Kidnaps with him


A trouble maker, a spoiled brat.

Insists on privilege


A text that speaks to us about anger

Epic poem in 24 books

Final weeks of the trojan war (year nine of the ten year war)

Wrath, Withdrawal, and Return

Fate - unavoidable even by Zeus




Calchas (Kalkhas)

theprophet (sacredto Apollo) for the Greek army

Ajax (Aias)

strongdefensiveGreek warrior


elderly Greek warrior,great talker,remembers and represents the heroic past


aGreek warrior Comparable with ajax

Shines in the absence of achillies

Patroclus (Patroklos)

Achilles’friendand companion

Comparable to Enkidu

Phoenix (Phoinix)

Anolder memberof Achilles’ household

Father figure to achillies

Book 9

Hector (Hektor)

Trojanprince,leader, andwarrior

Chryseis (Khryseis)

Daughterof Khryses,priest of Apollo.Capturedbythe Greeks in a raid on Khryse.


captivebelonging to Achilles

Hecuba (Hekabe)

Trojanqueen,Priam’s wife




divine mother of Achilles

Greeks alternate names

Achaeans (Akhaians)



Trojans andTroy alternate name





Honour- recognition of a heroes worth

division of the spoils of war

people are responsible for distributing this


Return Home


ritualized request

the action of asking or begging for something earnestly or humbly.

White Bands on Staff

Represent apollo (on the staff of Khryses)


Best examples of heroic abilities

Jason and the Golden Fleece

This shopaholic gets his squad (Argonauts) into formation to get that a golden sweater guarded by a dragon-snake-monster-thing on an island guarded by a massive a hole who reneges on promises.

He tames a fire bull and sows across of dragons teeth while on his main betches drugs.

Uses his main betch Medea to kill everything in sight. That betch is savage and will do it cause f**king aphrodite makes her want that one handled hunk of a man. She drugs a dragon, Jason gets the sweater, they're being chased, she KILLS HER BROTHER DISMEMBERS HIM AND THROWS HIM IN THE OCEAN AS A DIVERSION. Yeah.

Jasons return Home

Evil uncle Pelias has killed his dad and his mom has committed suicide. So Medea convinces Pelias's daughters to kill him, cut him up and boil the pieces.

Which they do. Naturally.

And then Jason and Medea are kicked out- because shockingly(?) the people of Iolcos aren't cool with how Jason handled that one.

He settles down with Medea and has Two Kids

Jason and Medea's Marriage

Is fine until Jason decides to run off with the Princess of Corinth and take the kids

Medea poisons the Princess, Poisons the king and KILLS HER OWN CHILDREN.

Then she rides off in a dragon powered chariot to Athens, curing infidelity in exchange for asylum (resulting in theseus's birth).

Jason's Death

Now that he's super lonely he sadly sits beside his ship and a plank hits him on the head and he dies.

And no one cares and he isn't elevated to divinity or cult status. He just dies.


A basic bitch with a psycho squad

Father: Aeson

Uncle: Pelias

Grandfather is POSSIBLY a wind god Aeolus

The worst of Heroes (He Britta'd heroes)


Sailors on the Ship Argo (built with help of Athena) , commissioned to get the Golden Sweater

Jason and the Sandal

Pelias usurps the throne from Jasons dad Aeson and so Jason is sent to be raised by the centaur Chiron

Oracle warns Pelias that a man descended from his bro Aeson will wear only one sandal and kill him

Jason heads back to Iolcos and loses a sandal helping disguised-as-old-lady Hera cross a river.

Helios realizes this must be Aesons son and does the only thing he can to protect himself- SEND JASON.... SHOPPING!!!


Father of Jason, former king of Iolcos- usurped by brother Pelias


Uncle of Jason, Brother of Aeson- Usurps and later kills


Killed by daughters under influence of Medea

King Aeetes

Land of Colchis.

Terrible host, has the Golden Fleece.

Father of Medea

Reneges promises.

How do Medea and Jason escape Colchis?

Medea dismembers her younger brother and throws him into the sea so that her father will have to stop and pick up the pieces

Founder of Democratic Assembly and Panathenaic Festival



Wind god

Jasons grandfather(?)




Medea's younger brother who she dismembers and throws into the ocean as a get away diversion. Normal sibling stuff.


The shining hero

Father: Helios

Mother: Clymene

Chariot of the Sun

Helios's chariot.

Phaethon (his son) asks to drive it. He loses control and sets the world on fire, must be killed by Zeus to put out the fire.

Scar of the milky way

Caused by Phaethon when he loses control of the Chariot of the Sun


The charioteer- Constellation of Phaethon


Reverence, shame


Maintains fidelity long past when expected (20 years, 10 MIA). Perfect wife


Bridal chamber of snakes. Sacrifices herself in husbands place when he falls ill and dies. Brought back by either persephone or herakles


Undergoes labours similar to herakles to regain husband Eros. Completes a descent into the underworld. Becomes immortal.


descent into the underworld

The "Good Mother"

Danae- Mother of Perseus

Io- Mother of Epaphus (line of Achilles)

Europa- Mother of Minos and Cretan kings

Often chosen by Gods


Both a helper maiden and a victorious heroine

Helps odysessus when he washes ashore, shows strength, dignity, cleverness, and restraint


Helper maiden, Helps Theseus and is abandoned and either becomes bride of dionysus or commits suicide.


Bride of Death


Bride of Death- sacrifices herself as Agamemnon's daughter to artemis for the safe sailing of hella ships to troy


Dies for the sake of her brothers burial


Warriors who refuse male company andmotherhood

Exist solely to be subdued by male heroes and warriors- killed or raped.


Daughter of helios


Turns men into animals (Odysseus's men to pigs)

Sings enchanting songs


Bad wife, abandons menelaus for trojan Paris

Starts a war


Takes a lover, rules like a man LIKE A BETCH while her husband Agamemnon is gone.

Doesn't gas about her kids, willing to kill them.

When he comes back with slave/concubine Cassandra clytemnestra murders both of them. Just up and stabs them.

She is killed by her son in turn (avenging of the father)

Apollo supports this avenging


In sick parody of Herakles and Artemis is a hunter virgin gets pregnant later on dionysus send her a fit of madness and she kills her son with her bare hands thinking its a lion


man hero husband