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103 Cards in this Set

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GREEK POTTERY:

What are some of the different ways in which pottery has been classified?
- Shape
- Function
- Surface treatment/decoration
- Fabric
GREEK POTTERY:

In what kinds of contexts were ceramic vessels used in ancient Greece? (6)
- Water-carrying vessels
- Mixing
- Pouring
- Drinking
- Perfume
- Ritual
GREEK POTTERY:

Briefly describe the difference in function between open and closed mouthed vessels.
OPEN = 50% or more than the maximum diameter of the vessel

CLOSED = less than 50% of the maximum diameter of the vessel
GREEK POTTERY:

What was the Dipylon vase used for?

Describe its surface decoration and explain how it serves as an example of the Geometric style of pottery.
- Function: Greek funerary vase
- Decoration: funeral rites and burial procession
- Example: geometrically patterned background, stick figures, and two-dimensional depiction of space.
GREEK POTTERY:

What is the black-figure technique and when was it developed?
- 7th - 6th century BC (650 – 530 BC)
- Figures painted in black (silhouette-like) against red-clay background
- Details incised into black paint, creating illusion of multiple planes
GREEK POTTERY:

How do black-figure vases differ from vases of the Geometric period in terms of painting technique, the representation of space, and the narratives/ themes that they depict?
- Painting technique: details are carved vs. painted.
- Representation of space: 3D vs. 2D
- Narratives/themes: mythological vs. patterns, shapes, and funeral art.
GREEK POTTERY:

What does red-figure refer to?

When was the red-figure technique developed?
- 530 BC
- Entire pot painted black except for figures in red-clay (from unpainted ceramic)
- Details drawn onto ceramic rather than carved
GREEK POTTERY:

Explain in what way red-figure is a reversal of the black-figure technique.
BLACK-FIGURE = black figures on red background

RED-FIGURE = red figures on black background
GREEK POTTERY:

In which style (red-figure or black-figure) did Exekias paint his Ajax and Achilles amphora?

What are Ajax and Achilles represented as doing on this vase?
- Black-figure
- Ajax and Achilles are playing dice
ARCHAIC SCULPTURE + POETRY:

Define the term kouros.

What are the definitive characteristics of kouroi statues?
- KOUROS = “young men”
- Functions: grave marker or dedicatory offering to a god.
- Characteristics: life-size statue, free-standing, naked, no attributes that mark it as an individual.
ARCHAIC SCULPTURE + POETRY:

How do Greek kouroi differ from the Egyptian monumental statues on which they were modeled?
- Lack of individuality
- Animate quality (vitality, youth, lifted leg, and nakedness)
ARCHAIC SCULPTURE + POETRY:

What differentiates the korai from the kouroi?

Describe two different functions of kouroi and korai.
Differences:
- KORAI = female; clothed; one arm down, one held forward with an offering.
- KOUROI = male; naked; left foot forward, arms rigid by side.

FUNCTIONS:
1) Dedications to gods in sanctuaries
2) Markers of tombs
ARCHAIC SCULPTURE + POETRY:

How does lyric poetry differ from epic?

What are some of the performance contexts for Greek lyric?
- EPIC = long, narrative; serious subjects, heroic deeds, culturally significant events.
- LYRIC = expresses feelings and may be a song that could be performed to an audience.
- Weddings, funerals, religious celebrations, symposiums.
ARCHAIC SCULPTURE + POETRY:

Who was Semonides?

How is his poetry similar to that of Hesiod?

Briefly describe the content of the Semonides poem that you read.
- Poet from the mid-seventh century BC
- Similar to Hesiod: theogeny about how woman came to be; negative image of women.
- Content: sings about the 10 different species of women (only of whom is good) and Pandora; shows again Greek view of women
ideal vs. not ideal
(know some examples)
???
ARCHAIC SCULPTURE + POETRY:

Why does Sappho seek Aphrodite’s help in poem 1?

What kind of consolation does Aphrodite offer Sappho?
- Asks for help because her lover doesn't lover her back.
- Says that lover will someday feel same agony.
ARCHAIC SCULPTURE + POETRY:

Of what is Helen an exemplum in Sappho 4?

How is Helen represented differently in Sappho than in the epic tradition (i.e. Homer)?
- Exemplum for someone who sees that love is more important than anything else.
- Willingly leaving husband for love vs. abduction and rape.
ARCHAIC SCULPTURE + POETRY:

What are the dates of the Archaic Period?

To what historical events do these dates correspond?
ARCHAIC PERIOD (776 - 500 BC)

- Rise of the polis ("city state")
- Colonization to the east and west
- Hoplite warfare (650 - 640 BC)
- Lyric poetry
ARCHAIC SCULPTURE + POETRY:

What form of government prevailed in the Greek poleis of the Archaic period?
OLIGARCHY
ARCHAIC SCULPTURE + POETRY:

What were statues used for in ancient Greece and where could they be found?
Originally not just art:
- Cult statues of gods
- Dedications to gods
- Grave markers

**Found in temples.
PERSIAN WARS AND HERODOTUS' HISTORIES

Where and when was Herodotus born?

How might Herodotus’ birthplace have impacted his writing of the Histories?
- Halicarnassus
- 485 BC
- Born into an intellectual environment in which ideas of earliest philosophers were readily accessible and fresh.
PERSIAN WARS AND HERODOTUS' HISTORIES

What is an agora?

How and why does Cyrus mention it in his response to the Lacedaemonian embassy?
- AGORA = city center/marketplace
- Cyrus dismisses Greek poleis with their agora and "open" lifestyle

???
PERSIAN WARS AND HERODOTUS' HISTORIES

What happened during the Ionian Revolt?

How were the Athenians involved?

What was Darius’ reaction to it?
- Ionian cities revolted against tyrants imposed by Persian government.
- First major conflict between Greece and Persian Empire.
- Athenians contributed a small fleet to the Ionian cause.
- Vowed to seek vengeance on the Athenians destroying Sardis.
PERSIAN WARS AND HERODOTUS' HISTORIES

Explain two ways in which the Ionian city of Miletus features in the buildup to the Persian Wars.
1) Ionian Revolt (sack of Miletus)
2) ???
PERSIAN WARS AND HERODOTUS' HISTORIES

Why did Darius lead an expedition against Greece in 490BC?

What was the outcome of the Battle of Marathon?
- Darius plans to reinstate Hippias as tyrant, punish Athenians for helping Ionian Greeks, and expand his empire westward.
- Greeks win unexpectedly due to their superior hoplite warfare technology, despite that fact that they were completely outnumbered.
PERSIAN WARS AND HERODOTUS' HISTORIES

What are Xerxes’ plans ca.480BC?

Briefly describe the outcomes of the battles of Thermopylae, Salamis, and Plataea.

In which conflicts were the Greeks victorious?
- Xerxes plans to finish his father's (Darius') war.
- THERMOPYLAE (480 BC): storm ruined some Persian vessels, so Persian fleet was not as numerically superior as they were before; the Spartans lost battle to the Persians but fought and died heroically.
- SALAMIS (480 BC): Greeks won because Persians couldn't take advantage of their numerical superiority in the narrow channel.
- PLATAEA (479 BC): final battle; Greeks won, thereby ending the Persian invasion.
- Greeks won = Salamis and Plataea
PERSIAN WARS AND HERODOTUS' HISTORIES

Who was Themistocles, and why was he important for the Greek victory at Salamis?

Was Salamis a battle on land or at sea?
- Commander of the Athenian navy.
- Manipulated situation so as to force the fight into the WATERS off Salamis, which resulted in Greek victory.
PERSIAN WARS AND HERODOTUS' HISTORIES

What does historia mean and in what contexts did the term appear before Herodotus used it to describe his own “history” of the Persian Wars?
- HISTORIA: investigations into natural phenomena
- Previously referred to "research"
PERSIAN WARS AND HERODOTUS' HISTORIES

How does Herodotus differ from Homer as a narrator?

Compare the beginning of the Histories with the beginning of the Odyssey.
- Prose (rather than poetry)
- Empirical (rather than mythical) accounts
- Beginning of ODYSSEY: authorless; directly inspired by muses.
- Beginning of HISTORIES: Herodotus identifies himself; takes credit for research/story; doesn't address muses.
PERSIAN WARS AND HERODOTUS' HISTORIES

Give a few examples of ways in which Herodotus conspicuously marks his difference from Homer.

In what sense is Herodotus’ project similar to Homer’s?
DIFFERENCES
- 64% longer
- Beginning (doesn't call on muses, identifies himself, takes credit, looking of immediate and underlying causes)

SIMILAR
- Part of Homeric epic literary tradition
- Recounts war between European and Asiatic forces.
PERSIAN WARS AND HERODOTUS' HISTORIES

Does Herodotus resolve the conflicting accounts of the Persians and Phoenicians regarding the theft of women (e.g., Io, Europa, and Medea)?

Why do you think he begins his Histories by recounting these abductions?
- Does not resolve conflict; presents both versions but purposely does not pass judgment because he lacks enough evidence to confidently do so.
- Represents two fundamental themes: desire and retribution; one injustice prompts an attempt at revenge/justice.
CROESUS, SOLON, AND BATTLE OF THERMOPYLAE

Who is Croesus?

Why does Herodotus begin his Histories with Croesus?
- King of Lydia (who started conflict with Greece)
- Background for Lydian empire
- Croesus used to show pattern of empires rising and falling.
CROESUS, SOLON, AND BATTLE OF THERMOPYLAE

Who is Gyges?

How is Croesus related to Gyges?

How does the Gyges episode in Book 1 relate to the rise and fall of Croesus?
- Gyges was Candaules (King of Lydia)'s bodyguard who killed Canduales when queen caught him watching her naked.
- 5 generational descendant of Gyges.
- Prophecy that there will be vengeance on a future relative of his; Croesus is eventually punished for Gyges killing Candaules.
CROESUS, SOLON, AND BATTLE OF THERMOPYLAE

Who are Tellus, Cleobis and Biton, and why, according to Solon, are they happier than Croesus?
- TELLUS: died gloriously in battle; had sons to carry on his name.
- CLEOBIS and BITON: dead; death was a reward for being such virtuous sons.
CROESUS, SOLON, AND BATTLE OF THERMOPYLAE

What does Solon mean when he tells Croesus to “Look to the end…” (I.32)?
- Can't call someone happy/blessed until their life ends.
- Must be able to see their lives as a whole.
CROESUS, SOLON, AND BATTLE OF THERMOPYLAE

When and how does Croesus first begin to experience a reversal of fortune?

When does Croesus fully recognize the truth of Solon’s words?
- Right after Solon leaves, Croesus' son is killed (fulfilling Croesus' dream.)
- Fully recognizes the truth when he is sitting on the pyre, about to be burned by Cyrus.
CROESUS, SOLON, AND BATTLE OF THERMOPYLAE

Explore Solon’s role in Book 1 of the Histories. Why do you think Herodotus stages this encounter between Croesus and Solon even though it very likely never
happened?
Herodotus' use of Solon is as a mouthpiece of himself, warning the audience of the dangers of empire (natural rise and fall of civilizations/cultures.)
CROESUS, SOLON, AND BATTLE OF THERMOPYLAE

How has Croesus’ downfall been overdetermined?

What are the factors involved?
- Overdetermined = more than one cause
- Misinterpretation of prophecy from Delphi (overconfidence)
- Punishment for Gyges (family curse working its way out)
- Natural rise and fall of civilizations/cultures
CROESUS, SOLON, AND BATTLE OF THERMOPYLAE

In what sense was Thermopylae a victory for Greeks/ Spartans despite the military defeat?
- KLEOS
- Fought courageously against overwhelming odds.
- 2 people survived which was incredibly disgraceful (return with your shield or on it)
CROESUS, SOLON, AND BATTLE OF THERMOPYLAE

According to Herodotus, how do the Spartans and their allies prevail (both tactically and culturally) over the Persians at Thermopylae?
- Better warriors (cultural importance in Sparta)
- A lot at stake because they're free people fighting for themselves
- Persians are all slaves (doesn't really matter to them whether they win or lose)
- Tactically: used geography to their advantage.
CROESUS, SOLON, AND BATTLE OF THERMOPYLAE

How is Xerxes represented in the film 300? Is there any basis in Herodotus for depicting him in such a fashion?
- God-like
- Superhuman in size (represents divine aspect)
- Monstrous
- Tyrant (treats subjects as slaves)
REBUILDING ATHENIAN ACROPOLIS

What is depicted on the Eurymedon vase and what does this tell us about Greek cultural attitudes toward the Persians in the aftermath of the Persian Wars?
- Passive Persian (bent over in submission) and Greek aggressor (holding erection)
- Symbolizes Greek victory over Persians, as well as general attitudes of Persians as weak, slaves to their country, etc.

???
REBUILDING ATHENIAN ACROPOLIS

When and for what purpose was the Delian League originally formed?

Explain the significance of the treasury’s move from Delos to Athens. When did this happen?
- Formed in 478 BC.
- Defensive alliance of Athens and allies aimed at preparing for future attacks.
- Moved from Delos to Athens in 454 BC.
- Move represented that the alliance was now an empire, assuming a king-like role, and demanding tributes/taxes.
- Athenian empire replaces Lydian and Persian empires.
REBUILDING ATHENIAN ACROPOLIS

What did the Persians do to the Acropolis in 480/479 BC?

Why did the Athenians wait thirty years before starting to rebuild?
- Persians destroyed Athenian Acropolis in 480/479 BC.
- OATH OF PLATAEA: swore not to rebuild any sanctuaries destroyed by barbarians so that the remains could serve as a memorial and a reminder of what the Persians had done.
REBUILDING ATHENIAN ACROPOLIS

Who initiated the rebuilding project?

Where did the funds come from?
- Pericles overturned the oath and initiated the Periclean Building Project to beautify the Acropolis.
- Funded by tax money paid to Delian League.
REBUILDING ATHENIAN ACROPOLIS

Which buildings were constructed as part of the project to rebuild the Acropolis?
1) Parthenon
2) Propylaea
3) Erechtheum
4) Temple of Athena Nike
REBUILDING ATHENIAN ACROPOLIS

Briefly describe the difference between the Doric and Ionic orders and give one example of each (from the Athenian Acropolis).
DORIC (ex. Parthenon)
- Simplest.
- Capital consists of a circle topped by a square.
- No base.
- Frieze has simple patterns.
- Metopes and trygliphs.

IONIC (ex. Erechteum)
- Stands on a base.
- Shaft/column taller and narrower than DORIC, has lines carved into it, and a little bulge to make it look straight.
- Capital consists of decorative scrolls.
- Frieze is plain.
- No metopes or triglyphs.
REBUILDING ATHENIAN ACROPOLIS

Where is the Parthenon located?

What is its function?
- Athens
- Treasury and temple; not used for worship; houses cult statues and dedications to the gods.
REBUILDING ATHENIAN ACROPOLIS

Describe where in/on a temple each of the following may be found:
- PEDIMENT
- FRIEZE
- METOPE
PEDIMENT: triangular section above structure, typically supported by the columns.

FRIEZE: horizontal band that runs above doorways and windows (molding.)

METOPE: rectangular section that fills the space between 2 triglyphs in a frieze.
REBUILDING ATHENIAN ACROPOLIS

Who was Pheidias?

What was his relationship to the Parthenon?
- Greek artist/architect
- Designed the Athena Parthenos which is a massive sculpture of Athena made out of ivory and gold located in the center of the Parthenon.
REBUILDING ATHENIAN ACROPOLIS

In what sense is the Parthenon a monument to the Greek (Athenian) victory in the Persian Wars?

(Hint: what was depicted on the metopes?)
Each of the four metopes depicts a mythical battle of civilized vs. monstrous.

Greeks = civilized
Persians = monstrous
REBUILDING ATHENIAN ACROPOLIS

What are the Elgin marbles and where can they be found today?

Where do you think they should be?
- Figures from east and west pediments in the Parthenon (centaurs vs. humans.)
- In British Museum but maybe should be in Greece?
- Saved by Lord Elgin and brought back to Britain, but technically belong to Greece (controversy)
???
REBUILDING ATHENIAN ACROPOLIS

Which U.S. city has its own Parthenon with full-scale reproduction of the Athena
Parthenos statue?
Nashville, Tennesse
ANCIENT GREEK COINS

What kinds of information can coins from another period of history provide us with? (6)
1) Material culture
2) Ancient economy
3) Archaeology
4) History
5) Art history
6) Numismatics
ANCIENT GREEK COINS

What is a blank?

Describe how the ancient Greeks made their coins, from mining the metal to striking the die.
BLANK = blank coin before it has markings.

PROCESS
1) Mine material.
2) Design for the OBVERSE ("what faces you") side of coin is carved into a block of iron called the DIE.
3) Design for the REVERSE ("turned back from you") side of coin is carved into a similar die called a PUNCH.
4) Melt material into BLANK (most difficult part.)
5) Blank placed between obverse and reverse and the punch is struck hard with a hammer, "punching" the design onto both sides of the coin.

**Only one side of coin is struck.
ANCIENT GREEK COINS

What is the value of the drachma relative to the obol?

Is a tetradrachm worth more or less than a drachma?
1 DRACHMA = 6 OBOLS

1 TETRADRACHM = 4 DRACHMAS
ANCIENT GREEK COINS

From whom did Greeks adopt the practice of minting coins?
Adopted practice from the LYDIANS in Asia Minor.
ANCIENT GREEK COINS

How can we tell if a coin has traveled far from its original place of production?

What historical insights does such information yield?
- Figure out where coin was struck.
- Info on ancient commerce and travel patterns.
ANCIENT GREEK COINS

Which two Greek city-states produced coins that traveled far and wide?

Which Greek polis did not mint its own coins?
- Most traveled coins from: ATHENS and CORINTH.
- SPARTA did not mint its own coins.
ANCIENT GREEK COINS

Why would a die-maker have included his signature on the die he cast?
Made die casting an art form.
ANCIENT GREEK COINS

Why do you think Athenians were conservative with, or reluctant to change, their dies?
?
ANCIENT GREEK COINS

What does “numismatics” mean and why would historians be interested in it?
- NUMISMATICS = study of coins in their historical context.
- Coins tell us a lot about history...
ANCIENT GREEK COINS

What is a hoard?

Why is it often archaeologists who discover them and what value do they hold for the archaeologist of ancient Greece?
- HOARD = collection of valuable objects or artifacts, sometimes purposely buried in the ground.
- Provide useful method of dating artifacts through association as they can usually be assumed to be contemporary and therefore used in creating chronologies.

???
DEMOCRACY AND ATTIC DRAMA

How “democratic” was Athenian democracy?

What groups of people participated in the democracy?

Who was excluded?
- Much more democratic than Sparta.
- All citizens had opportunity to participate in government (though division of political power was in accordance with wealth.)
- Only people excluded were slaves.
DEMOCRACY AND ATTIC DRAMA

Compare and contrast the Spartan and Athenian systems of government during the classical period.
Spartan OLIGARCHY
- 2 hereditary kings (more military leaders than monarchs)
- Gerousia (council of elders)
- Ephors (government officials with that all citizens, regardless of family background, were eligible to become)
- Assembly of citizens (only made up tiny percent of the population; the rest were deemed "helots" or slaves owned by state)

Athenian DEMOCRACY
- Citizen population divided into four categories based on quantity of produce their land yielded.
- Ownership of land was not a requirement of citizenship, but was basis for participation in government.
- Possibility of upward mobility was built into system.
- All citizens, except slaves, had opportunity to participate in government (though division of political power was in accordance with wealth.)
- Slaves owned by individual citizens.
DEMOCRACY AND ATTIC DRAMA

How did Solon contribute to the development of Athenian democracy?
- Appointed to solve crisis that stemmed from an uneven distribution of wealth.
- Restructured political power in Athens by dividing citizen population into four categories.
DEMOCRACY AND ATTIC DRAMA

Briefly describe Cleisthenes’ reforms of 508BC.

How did these reforms lessen the influence of aristocratic families within Athens and prevent future episodes of tyranny?
- Divided population into 10 tribes; membership was then hereditary.
- Council of 500 (50 people from each tribe)
- Reduced the influence and importance of traditional family connections.
- Ostracism (vote to expel a person from the state for 10 years; way of neutralizing someone thought to be a threat to the state, or exiling a potential tyrant.)
DEMOCRACY AND ATTIC DRAMA

What other mechanisms did the Athenians have to prevent tyrants from coming to power?
?
DEMOCRACY AND ATTIC DRAMA

What is a liturgy?

Give an example.
LITURGY = public service wealthy citizens were required to undertake and finance.

Example: the festival at City Dionysia was one of the liturgies demanded of the wealthy.
DEMOCRACY AND ATTIC DRAMA

In honor of which god was the City Dionysia celebrated every year?

Where did the performances of tragedies take place?
- In honor of Dionysus.
- Took place in theater built next to sanctuary of Dionysus.
DEMOCRACY AND ATTIC DRAMA

Why is Dionysus referred to as the “twice-born” god?
- Zeus had an affair with mortal woman named Semele.
- She dies by Zeus' lightning bolts while Dionysus is still in her womb (birth #1)
- Zeus takes baby and sews him into his thigh; couple months later Dionysus is born (birth #2)
DEMOCRACY AND ATTIC DRAMA

What does tragoidia mean?
TRAGOIDIA = tragedy (literally, "goat song")

A dramatic poem or play in formal or stately language and action having an unhappy resolution.
DEMOCRACY AND ATTIC DRAMA

What Greek word is “theater” derived from and what does it mean?
"THEATRON": "viewing area" or wooden spectator stands.
INTRO TO GREEK TRAGEDY

How does our experience of going to the theater today differ from that of the ancient Greeks who attended the Great Dionysia/ City Dionysia? How is it similar?
DIFFERENT
- No longer for religious reasons
- Used to sit thousands and thousands of people
- Everyone goes at specific times (festivals) with no choice of which play they're watching.
- All actors male
INTRO TO GREEK TRAGEDY

What can we learn about a culture from studying its forms of popular culture/entertainment?
- Values and morals
- Government forms
- Separation of myth and reality
INTRO TO GREEK TRAGEDY

What are the three plays comprising the Oresteia?

Who wrote them?
"ORESTEIA" by Aeschylus

I. Agamemnon
II. The Libation Bearers
III. The Furies
AGAMEMNON

Who speaks the prologue of Agamemnon?

Where is this character positioned on the stage as he delivers the prologue speech?
WATCHMAN appears on the roof of the house.

(Perhaps the first time the roof of a scene building was used for the entrance of a character on the Athenian stage.)
AGAMEMNON

Who were Atreus and Thyestes?

How are they related to the characters of Agamemnon and how do their (mis)fortunes impact the action of the play?
ATREUS
- Agamemnon's father
- Brother of Thyestes

THYESTES
- Aegisthus' father
- Brother of Atreus

MISFORTUNE
Atreus invited his estranged brother to meal of reconciliation. But Atreus killed Thyestes' children and served them in a stew to their unsuspecting father.
AGAMEMNON

According to the Chorus of Argive Elders, why did the Greeks go to war against Troy?

What was Paris’ crime against Menelaus?
- Fight for Helen
- Stealing his wife
AGAMEMNON

According to the Chorus, why was Agamemnon forced to sacrifice his daughter?

What are the short-term and long-term consequences of this sacrifice?
- Because of a prophecy that if he sacrificed his daughter, the storm would die out and his fleets would safely make it to Troy.
- Short term: caught between military and parental obligations.
- Long term: perpetuates family curse and ultimately leads to death because Clytemnestra avenges daughter...

???
AGAMEMNON

Discuss the dangers facing Agamemnon upon his return to Argos.

How does the Chorus regard him?
- Murder plot by Clytemnestra ans Aegisthus.
- Chorus are envious (?) and resentful that so many men needlessly died for a war fought for a man's wife.

???
AGAMEMNON

Why does Agamemnon hesitate to tread on the red carpet that Clytemnestra spreads before him?

Explain the significance of his concession.
- Sees this as an act of outrageous arrogance, destructive of the household property, and likely to enrage the ever-watchful and jealous gods.
- Concession significant because he's acting like a tyrant.
- Carpet red like blood, walking to his death (symbolizes)
AGAMEMNON

Why does Clytemnestra ask Agamemnon what Priam would have done, as she is
coaxing him out of the chariot?
Trying to persuade him to act the way she wants him to.
AGAMEMNON

Who is Cassandra and what is her relationship to Apollo?

Why does no one believe Cassandra's prophecies?
- Daughter of Priam (King of Troy)
- Made a deal with Apollo that she'd sleep with him if he gave her the power of prophecy.
- Changes her mind after Apollo gives her power; he lets he keep her new ability but makes it so no one will ever believe her.
AGAMEMNON

Why does Cassandra resist entering the house?

What does she see/ perceive that the chorus does not?
- Vision of what's about to occur: cow kills bull (Clytemnestra kills Agamemnon.)
- Knows what's going to happen but has no power to prevent it.
AGAMEMNON

What is depicted on the Boston Oresteia krater by the Dokimasia painter?

Do you think the vase was produced before or after Aeschylus’ Oresteia? Why?
- Depicts Aegisthus killing Agamemnon on one side, and Orestes killing Aegisthus on the other side.

- Date to about same time but we don't know if it's before or after.
AGAMEMNON

What does Clytemnestra mean when she says, “I have repaid the debt of Atreus”?

What debt is this and how has it been repaid?
- Blood debt

???
LIBATION BEARERS

By what sign(s) does Electra recognize that Orestes has been at the tomb of their father at the beginning of the Libation Bearers?
She sees a lock of her brothers hair (as well as his footprints.)
LIBATION BEARERS

Why has Clytemnestra sent Electra and the chorus to bring libations to the tomb of Agamemnon?
- Guilt
- She's been having nightmares that she gives birth to a snake representing that her son is coming back to kill her.
LIBATION BEARERS

To whom do Electra, Orestes, and the Chorus address their song of lamentation to and what is its purpose?
- Lamentation to Agamemnon.
- Asking for him to "rise up out of the ground" and support their plot for revenge.
- Seeking his approval.
LIBATION BEARERS

Agamemnon is frequently addressed during the extended song of mourning: what help can be expected to come from below?
Support
LIBATION BEARERS

Why do his children think it have been better if Agamemnon had died at Troy?
Because at least them he would have gotten kleos and he wouldn't have destroyed his and his family's reputation.
LIBATION BEARERS

How do the mythological exempla of Althaea, Skylla, and the Lemnian women relate to the action and themes of this play?
- Examples of monstrous women and men-killers.
- Chorus' psychological boost to help Orestes kill his mother.
FURIES

What is the Pythia’s relationship to Apollo at Delphi?

How has Apollo come into possession of the oracle?
- Prophetess at Apollo's oracle in Delphi.
- Bequeathed to him by previous oracle, Phoebe.
FURIES

Why does Apollo call the Furies “wizened ancient children”?

How would you characterize Apollo’s attitude to the Furies?
- Never married or bore children.
- Don't fit into normal social order; freaks of nature.
- He hates them.
FURIES

What do the Furies mean when they describe Apollo as a thief?
- Stole Orestes away from them to protect him.
- Olympians took control of oracle which used to be controlled by an older order of gods.
FURIES

Explain the differences in how Apollo and the Furies understand “justice” as operating.
- FURIES: murders that involve death of kin.
- APOLLO: crimes that involve the breaking of cultural bonds (marriage.)
FURIES

Why does Orestes leave Delphi? To where in Athens does he go?
Leaves Delphi to escape the Furies and goes to Athena's temple.
FURIES

Why does Athena set up a human jury?

Why doesn’t she simply decide the case (free Orestes) on her own?

Is Athena an impartial magistrate at Orestes’ trial?
- Because it is a big deal and she can't do it on her own.
- Not impartial.
FURIES

What are the main points in Orestes’ defense?

In the Furies’ defense?
ORESTES: mom isn't actually a parent, she's more like a nurse, so he hasn't really killed his mother. Also, avenging death of his father.

FURIES: he killed his mother and must be punished.
FURIES

How does Athena appease the Furies?

Are women in a position of greater strength at the beginning of the trilogy, or at the end?

Support your answer with specific examples from all three plays.
- Transforms them into Eumenides (benign spirits) who preserve the prosperity of Athens.
- ???
What is depicted and what is it's relevance?
- Battle involving hoplite warfare.
- ?
What does it depict and what is its significance?
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