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94 Cards in this Set

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Correctional officer role

Not just guard anymorw, closest contact with inmates. Supervise, counsel, protect, process, guard inmate. Communicate and maintain inmates health and security.

Attica (New York)

During civil rights movt., bad living conditions and no rights. Employees and inmates killed during riot and they changed the correctional officer's job because of the riot. No more guarding and more opportunities for minorities and staff training.

Cell block officer

Observe daily activities and wellbeing of inmates

Work detail officer

Supervise work duties, inmates doing their jobs

Industrial shop/education

Supervise activities, watch for missing tools and such

Yard officers

Inmates outdoors, gangs, watch to make sure no violence

Tower guards

Observing outbreak of violence or escapes

Admin. building assignments

Providing security in different places like visits, hospitals, transportation


Sixth sense, can and cannot do, security, treatment with money, follow the 4 goals of punishment and use discretion. JDLR- just don't look right.


Prison administration, policy - making


Security, Disciplinary


Head of correctional officer, closer to inmate and works in prison

Inmate litigation reform act

Cooper v. Pate, right to challenge living conditions in prison (lawsuits), high number of complaints led to more strict act, handle it inside of prison and complaints decreased because it was hard to file.

Women in prison

1.5 times the rate of men, 2/3 have children that they left behind and 6-10% come in pregnant. Have much more of a privacy issue and issues with body searches, more emotional and distressed. Create mock families in prison and have lots of gay relationships to help with emotions.

Death work

36 states, carry out the death penalty, highly trained teams with witnesses and guarding prisoner to watch before and after injection/shooting.

Prisoners rights

Rights while incarcerated, safety and security always override individual rights, section 1983 protects them. 1, 4, 8, 14 amendments, access to legal libraries, writ writers are other prisoners that help the illiterate prisoners with civil rights.

1st amendment

limitations on freedom of speech and expression and religious rights like besrds, dress, diet

4th amendment

Searches are permitted, cell searches and confiscation, body searches only when necessary

8th amendment

Totality of conditions, brutality, overcrowding, bad meals, medical treatment

14th amendment

Due process, equal protection

Iron curtain speech: no curtain between constitution and inmate, they still have rights.

Prison gangs

Develop for solidarity, protection and power of inmates. Creates violence and segregation inside and outside of prison. Highlight structured and loosely structured. Bad attitude against authority

Hands off doctrine

Notion by courts that prison admin should be given free rein to run their prisons as they deem best

Prisonization (Clemmer)

Inmate code, inmates form own values,norms and beliefs, segration and no snitching, prison vocab, internalize the prison culture (home), a way of life, unable to function of outside because of criminal mindset.

Deprivation (sykes)

Deprivation of liberty, goods and services, security, autonomy (do whatever you want) and heterosexual relationships. Hard on the inmate.

Adaptive roles

Doing your time (follow the code), gleaning (seek to improve), jailing (look for power, cut off society), disorganized criminal (do not fit).

Community corrections

Any activity performed by agents of the state to assist offenders to establish functional law-abiding roles in the community.

Alternatives to incarceration

Protects community, from criminal predation, cheaper and less overcrowding in prisons, allows to remain with family and work, prevents prisonization and criminal lifestyle

3 elements of community corrections

Must incapacitate offenders enough (interfere with their life's and limit reoffending), must be unpleasant enough (deter from crime), has to provide real and credible protection (keep community safe from harm)


Supervise in community, less serious crime, it is the punishment.

Judicial Reprieve (probation)

Delay sentence on good behavior, no supervision

John Augustus (probation)

(Shoemaker), 1st p.o in the u.s., 1858- supervised 2000 people, suspended sentence with supervision. Led to the first probation statue in MA that started hiring people to be a p.o.


Early release of a prisoner who must comply with certain terms and conditions, serve rest of sentence in the community

Alexander Maconochie (parole)

Punished for past while trained for future, open-ended interdeterminate sentences

Walter Crofton (parole)

Ticket of leave system, mark system, early release

Probation eligibility

Prior record, aggravating and mitigating circumstances, weapon used, active/passive participation in the crime, success or failure in prior probation

Parole eligibility

Same as probation + the attitude towards crime and attitude of victim and family, understanding what they did was wrong, adjustment in prior sanctions and participation in programs, parole plan (work, place to live)

Probation/parole violations

Technical:failure to meet conditions

Substantive: new offense

Revocation of probation requires new hearing and parole gets sent back to jail if violation occurs

Probation=front end duties

Supervise at front end of sentencing continuum, monitoring behavior in community and compliance with conditions of their probation, adults or juveniles. Report violations, enforce court orders, perform series and seizes, attend hearings, investigations and prepare reports.

Parole=back end duties

Supervising released offenders, help paroles adjust back into communitu, develop plan for parolee, substance abuse rehab or job training, attend hearings and make recommendations on interviews with parolees


The number of cases awaiting disposition by a court or number of active cases or clients maintained by probation/parole officer. Creates lots of stress because of high caseloads, inefficient work with too many.

Intensive supervision

More frequent surveillance and contact, limited to serious offenders, diversion v. Enhanced

House arrest, home confinement

Electronic monitoring, curfews and check ins, active (send signals when person leaves), passive ( signal calls the home)

Community service

Unpaid labor, cleaning and assisting

Shock probation/parole boot camps

Shock offenders into desisting from crime, released after 30 days (scaring)

Day reporting centers

Offender reports each day to carry out elements of sentencing, drug/alcohol treatment and testing

Work release

Maintained in secure environment, allow to maintain employment, strict surveillance.

Fines, restitution, forfeiture

Payment, re-payment or loss of assets

Restorative justice

Apologize to victim, community must be healed, assist victims, restore community, offender takes responsibility and restores community.

Intermediate sanction

Form of punishment between freedom and prison, house arrest or day reporting

Intermediate sanction

Form of punishment between freedom and prison, house arrest or day reporting

Hands on doctrine

Belief by courts thay inmates have certain constitutional rights that courts must see are upheld and also be obeyed by prison admin

Juvenile delinquency

Juveniles who do not engage in antisocial behavior are statistically abnormal, asserting independence and developing self

Parens patriae

Doctrine in which state is ultimate parent of child (step in and provide care to child if parents neglect those duties)

Puritan juvenile period

Children were evil, seen as cupable adults, children who disobeyed dealt with by law

Refuge juvenile period

Middle class calls for reform, cure the child for dangerous classes. Child savers move from punitive and rehabilitative, given family settings.

Juvenile court

Reform leads to development of first juvenile court in Illinois (juvenile court act) separate court for juveniles, less adversarial procedures, programs of probation

Status offense

Crime committed by juvenile that wouldn't be a crime if committed by an adult (break curfew, alcohol, tobacco possession)

Status offense

Crime committed by juvenile that wouldn't be a crime if committed by an adult (break curfew, alcohol, tobacco possession)

In re winship

Beyond a reasonable doubt

Juvenile rights, court decisions

States not required to provide a jury trial, no double jeaopardy, receive constitutional rights, lack the maturity and hurts their future if in jail too long, life without parole also hurts bad, crime control and preventative detention is okay & right to Miranda warnings

Breed v. Jones

No double jeopardy for juvenile

In re Gault

Notification of charges, legal counsel, confront eitnesses, privilege against self-incrimination, right to appellate review

Kent v. U.S.

Juveniles must be afforded certain constitutional rights

Kent v. U.S.

Juveniles must be afforded certain constitutional rights

Roper v. Simmons

Assumed to lack maturity to appreciate long term consequences, acts can jeopardize future

Juveniles today

1 in 4 arrests for theft, burglary, larceny and 14% rape, 11% assault, 9% murder

Juvenile offending

Family dysfunction: transfer dysfunctional norms to child

Drug use and deviance: alcohol, tobacco

Socioeconomic class: poor, poverty line, welfare dependence

Educational background: poor education

Juvenile offending

Family dysfunction: transfer dysfunctional norms to child

Drug use and deviance: alcohol, tobacco

Socioeconomic class: poor, poverty line, welfare dependence

Educational background: poor education

Loco parentis

State will act in place as the parent, take in child

Schall v. Martin

Crime control period, crack down on crime and preventative detention is okay

Underlying principles

Presumption of innocence

Presumption of least amount of involvement with system

Presumption of best interest of minor

Underlying principles of jv system

Presumption of innocence

Presumption of least amount of involvement with system

Presumption of best interest of minor

Goals of juvenile systems

Separation from adults: (idealistic contrast, separate guidelines, centers)

Youth confidentiality: no record, not fully accountable

Communtiy based corrections like probation

Individualized justice of minors:informal outcome, case viewed separately

Case flow: police (jv)

Whether to take child into custody, whether to request that child be detained after apprehension, whether to refer child to court

Case flow:diversion (jv)

If detained, detention hearing, detention centers

Case flow: disposition (jv)

Hearing to decide what action should be taken ( dismissal, probation), advocates say goal should be rehab

Case flow: residential placement (jv)

Facilities differ, home setting or prison setting

Case flow: aftercare (jv)

Like parole but with juveniles, supervised and monitored

Juvenile waiver

Lose status as minor and become tried as adult, serious crime, judicial waiver, prosecutorial waiver, statutory exclusion. Juveniles waived to criminal courts are most likely to reoffend

Transfer (remand)

Juvenile transferred to adult court (waived)

Jdb v north carolina

Right to Miranda warnings

Miller v alabama

Life without parole for juveniles ruins their lives

Correction staff ranks

Captain, then lieutenant, sergeant, correctional officer


Any unlawful act that are intended to intimidate or coerce a civilian population or govt. Usually for political or social objective (school shootings, 9/11, unibomber)

Cyber crime

Identity theft, attacks against computer systems and data, distribution of child pornography, viruses, email scams (phishing). Fasted growing areas of crime, most disastrous crime, speed of technology makes it worse.


Cyberespionage, chinese hackers steal u.s. military ideas, 50-80% of theft of property, biggest hacker today


Biological weapons, anthrax, smallpox, viruses, spreading disease. Chemical weapons, gases thay suffocate and choke immediately

Law enforcement measures

Gathering intelligence on organization's structures, members, plans. Determining whay measures can be taken, apprehending suspects, assessing damages thay may be caused and how to minimize it. Military may step in for domestic threats.

Legislative measures

Patriot Act - can get into your business, searches, & military commissions act

Field intelligence groups

Know your domain

Natural incident managing system

Work together to prevent domestic acts

Gun control

The right to bear arms (2nd amendment), mass killings occur about once every two weeks, u.s. has highest murder rate by guns, highest number of guns per capita

Marijuana conundrum

About half of all drug arrests, public support for legalization is increasing, legalizing result in reduced prices, better quality control, reduction in street crimes, less overcrowding in jails (quadrupled incarceration) (LEAP)

Marijuana federal vs. State

Legalization at state law is violating federal law still, listed at schedule 1 controlled substance: no medical value, high potential for abuse. Public does not favor federal govt. Stance.