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79 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
Original Sin
Christian doctrine that all human beings inherit a sinful nature from Adam


Study of the person and work of Jesus Christ
Christian belief that Jesus Christ is God and human
Kenosis/Kenotic Cristology
belief that for the sake of experiencing human existence the eternal, divine Son of God divested himself of the use of his attributes
Ancient heresy that Jesus Christ was a great Jewish prophet but not God incarnate.
"Begotten, not made"
Nicene, orthodox Christian confession that the Son of God "comes forth" eternally from the Father and was never created
Heresy that "Jesus Christ" is a corporate personality compsed of two distinct persons-the eternal, divine Son of God and the man Jesus
Heresy that "Jesus Christ" is one person and one nature - a hybrid of human and divine
Chalcedon/Chalcedonian Christology/Hypostatic Union
Christian doctrine that Jesus Christ is one person with 2 distinct natures - human and divine
Three office of Christ
Traditional Christian belief in Jesus Christ as Prophet, Priest, and King
Christ's saving work for sinners by his death on the cross
Ransom Theory
Atonement viewed as God paying a ransom to free humanity from bondage to sin and condemnation
Christus Victor/Classical Theory
Atonement viewed as God conquering the devil to free humanity from bondage to sin and condemnation
Satisfaction Theory
Atonement viewed as God paying the debt owed by humanity for dishonoring God; Christ's death pays our debt so that we do not have to die spiritually
Penal Substitution Theory
Atonement viewed as God, in the person of Jesus Christ, taking the punishment deserved by humanity for sin
Moral Example Theory
Atonement viewed as God provided in Jesus Christ an example of perfect love; the cross of Jesus "draws" sinners to God and to love neighbors as God loves us.
Heresy that human persons initiate their own salvation apart from grace
Heresy that human persons are capable of obeying God without any supernatural help; denial of original sin
Total Depravity
Belief that original sin results in human beings being completely helpless to do anything good without assisting grace
Prevenient Grace
Idea that God provdies sufficient assisting grace for fallen persons to respond positively to God's call to salvation with faith. This grace "goes before" salvation and heals total depravity so that the human will is not in bondage to sin but is capable of cooperating grace.
Calvinist system of beliefs: total depravity, unconditional election, limited atonment, irresisible grace, perseverance of the saints
Belief that God unilaterally elects/predestines some people to salvation and draws them irreistible into a saving relationship with himself
Belief that God does not elect or predestine anyone to salvation or damnation but offers salvation to all who are given "freed will" by prevenient grace

God's decision to have a people for his name - Israel and then the church
God's foreordination of certain people to be saved unconditionally
God's predertmination of some people to be saved; God foreknows who wll be saved because he decides
God does all the work of salvation so that human persons who are saved contribute nothing to their salvation; God is the sole active agent in salvation such that persons being saved are passive
Salvation is in some sense a cooperation betwee God and the person being saved
God's uncaused and unmerited favor; in some Christian traditions also God's transofmring power within persons being saved
Belief in God; trust in God
Ordo Salutis/Order of Salvation
Theological discernment of the logical progression of salvation; what God does and what the human person being saved does and in the what sequence.
God's gracious renewing of a person's spiritual life; spiritual "new birth"; "the expulsive power of a new affection"

Turning to God with repentance and faith
God's gracious declaration of a person as righteous on account of faith: "by face through faith alone."

God's work to save fallen humanity through the life, death, and resurrection of Jesus Christ
Idea that salvation includes a graciously bestowed partial participation in the divine nature
The progressive outcome of regeneration in a life of growth in holiness; a work of the Holy Spirit helping a converted, regenerated and justified person become increasingly Christlike inwardly and outwardly
Entire Sanctification
Idea the sanctification can include an entire eradication of the sinful nature so that a person reaches a condition of being "perfected in love." A common belief among the followers of John Wesley.
Spirit Baptism
Any belief in a "second blessing" after converstion in which a person is propelled by grace to a higher Christian life. Most commonly held by Pentecostals but often also held by another revivalistic Protestants
The completion of sanctification in the resurrection when a saved person's progress in holiness and Christlike character is finished
Study of the person and work of the Holy Spirit
Study of the church: its characteristics, government, worship, and ceremonies
Believer's Church
idea that the church is composed of regenerated persons and oes not include all members of a community
Marks of the church
Essential characteristics of the true church of Jesus Christ as opposed to a club or fraternal organization or parachurch organization: union, apostolicity, universality, holiness, etc.
Any arrangement of church government
Episcopal Polity
Church ruled by bishops; hierarchical church government
Presbyterian Polity
Church ruled by elders; congregations accountabe to one another in "synods"
Congregational Polity
Chuch ruled by the laity; autonomy of the local church
Rituals, ceremonies considered either means of grace, signs and seals of grace through faith, or acts of commitment and remembrance: baptism, Lord's supper, etc.
Sacrament or ordinance of initiation into the Christian faith. Done by sprinkling, pouring or immersion depending on the tradition
Lord's Supper
Sacrament or ordinance of commemorating Christ's last supper with his disciples; viewed as a memorial meal by most believers churches and as a means of grace by most hierarchical churches
Real Presence
Belief that in some mysterious way Jesus Christ is bodily or spiritually present in the observace of the Lord's Supper
Roman Catholic doctrine of the real presence of Christ in the sacrament of the Eucharist; by consecration by a priest the elements of the bread and wine actually become the body and blood of Christ
View of the real presence of Christ in the Lor'd Supper held by Lutherans and some other Protestants; the risen and glorified boy of Jesus Christ in "in, with and under" the elements of bread and wine
Spiritual Presence (Calvin's view)
Christ is not physically or bodily present in the Lord's Supper but is spiritually present strengthening faith

Memorialism (Zwinglian view)
The Lord's Supper is not a means of grace and there is no real presence of Christ bodily, but the Lord's Supper is a faith-strengthening commemoration of Christ's sacrifice and an anticipation of his return
Baptismal Regeneration
Belief that water baptism actualizes new birth by the Holy Spirit
Baptism as covenatal sign and seal
Beliefe that baptism is the Christian equivalent of circumcision under the old covenant; it initiates a person (usually an infant) into the people of God

Baptism as token of salvation/act of commitment
Belief that baptism represents conversion/regeneration and publicly proclaims a peron's determination to walk with Christ in the context of his people

Intermediate State
The condition of persons betwee bodily death and bodily resurrection; usually regarded as a conscious, non-bodily "being with the Lord" until the final resurrection, judgment and entrance to heaven or hell

Soul Sleep
Belief that the intermediate state is not conscious
Dualism/Holistic Dualism
Belief that body and soul, though distinct, are not separable (except possibly in the intermediate state which is unnatural)
Belief that separable body and soul compse the the human person
Belief that separable body, soul and spirit compose the human person
The final destiny of the wicked; the "lake of fire" created for the devil and his angels
The blissful but not final condition of the righteous in the intermediate state
The final destiny of the righteous; the "new heaven and new earth" inhabitated by resurrected persons after Christ's return
Idea that the wicked will in the end be destroyed
Belief in universal salvation; everyone will eventually be saved
Belief that there is no possibility of salvation outside of an explicit knowledge of Jesus Christ and acceptance of him as Savior by name
Any belief that the unevangelized may (not will) be saved by some means
Roman Catholic belief in a condition of continuing sanctification after death before heaven
Christian belief in the restoration of bodily existence (glorification) in heaven
Study of the "end times" and its events such as Christ's return, judgment, resurrection, heaven, and hell
Visible, public return of Christ to earth
Belief that Christ will return to earth in the "last days" to run and reign over it for one thousand years
Belief that the "thousand year reign of Christ" is spiritual and hidden; continuous with the church in the world
Belief that Christ's return will be preceded by a period of a "Christianized world"
Belief that Christ will "rapture" his true people (authentic believers) invisible and secretly before or in the middle of a seven year "tribulation period" immediately preceding the public return of Christ to begin his millenial reign on earth. All dispensationalists are also premillennialists; not all premillennialists are dispensationalists.