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18 Cards in this Set

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prosocial behavior

Voluntary behavior intended to benefit other people.

parenting styles

The general ways in which parents interact with their children.

attribution

In social cognition, any inference about the cause of a person's behavioral action or set of actions. More generally, any inference about the cause of any observed action or event.

social psychology

The branch of psychology that attempts to understand how the behavior and subjective experiences of individuals are influenced by the actual or imagined presence of other people.

person bias

The tendency to attribute a person's behavior too much to the person's inner characteristics (personality) and not enough to the environmental situation.

self–esteem

A person’s feeling of approval and acceptance of him or herself.

reference group

A group of people with whom an individual compares him– or herself for the purpose of self–evaluation. See also social comparison.

social comparison

Any process in which an individual evaluates his or her own abilities, characteristics, ideas, or achievements by comparing them with those of other people. See also reference group.

self–serving attributional bias

The tendency of people to attribute their successes to their own qualities and their failures to the situation.

personal identity

The portion of the self-concept that pertains to the self as a distinct, separate individual. For contrast, see social identity.

social identity

The portion of the self-concept?that pertains to the social categories or groups of which the person is a part. For contrast, see personal identity.

explicit stereotypes

Stereotypes that people hold consciously. See stereotypes. For contrast, see implicit stereotypes.

stereotypes

Mental concepts by which people characterize specific groups or categories of people.

attitude

Any belief or opinion that has an evaluative component–a belief that something is good or bad, likable or unlikable, attractive or repulsive.

explicit attitudes

Conscious attitudes; that is, attitudes that people are aware of holding and can state verbally. For contrast, see implicit attitudes.

cognitive dissonance theory

Festinger’s theory that people seek to relieve the discomfort associated with the awareness of inconsistency between two or more of one’s own cognitions (beliefs or bits of knowledge).

implicit attitudes

Attitudes that are manifested in a person’s behavior or automatic mental associations, even though the person may not be conscious of holding those attitudes. For contrast, see explicit attitudes.

insufficient–justification effect

A change in attitude that serves to justify an action that seems unjustified in the light of the previously held attitude.