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52 Cards in this Set

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Matter is defined as anything that takes up ____ and has ____.

______ is defined as anything that takes up space and has mass.

The smallest chemical units of matter are _____.

The smallest _____ _____ of matter are atoms.

An _______ is matter that is composed of a single _____.

An element is _______ that is composed of a ______ atom.

A nucleus is composed of ________ neutrons and __________ ______ protons.

A nucleus is composed of uncharged _________ and positively charged _________.

Elements differ from each other in their ______ ______ which is the number of protons in their nucleus.

Elements differ from each other in their atomic number, which is the number of _________ in their ______.

The ______ ______ of an atome (sometimes called its ______ ______) is the sum of the masses of its protons, neutrons, and electrons.

atomic mass (sometimes called the atomic weight) is the ___ of the _____ of its _______, _______, and ________.s

List at least four ways that radioactive isotopes are useful.

.microbiological research


.medical diagnosis


.treatment of disease


.sterilization of medical equipment




above are ways that ________ __________ are useful.

Interactions between atoms valence shells are called ______ ______.




Two or or more atoms held together by ______ ______ are known as a _________.




A _________ that contains atoms of more than one element is a __________.







What are chemical bonds?




How many different atoms are needed to form molecules?




What is a compound?

4 uses for radioactive isotopes?

Microbiological research, medical diagnosis, the treament of disease, and the complete destruction of contaminating microbes ( sterilization) are examples of uses for what?

A ________ ____ is the sharing of a pair of electrons by two atoms.




the attraction of a atom for electrons is called its _____ __________.

what is a covalent bond




What is electronegativity?

compounds that contain ________ and ________ atoms are called organic compounds.

compounds that contain carbon and hydrogen atoms are called _________ ____________.

POLARITY OR ELECTRONEGATIVITY

attraction of atom for electrons

The more electronegative an atom, the greater


the pull its nucleus exerts on electrons

Atoms of a given element that differ in the number of neutrons in their nuclei (react same way with other atoms)
ISOTOPES
Useful in microbiological research, medical diagnosis, treatment of disease, complete destruction of microbes, sterilization of medical equipment & chemicals
ISOTOPES
– electrons in outermost shell that interact with
other atoms (critical for interactions between atoms)
VALENCE ELECTRONS

– Shared electrons spend equal amounts of time around each nucleus
– Atoms with similar electronegativities – No poles exist – Carbon atoms form four nonpolar covalent bonds with other atoms
NON POLAR COVALENT BONDS
__________ contain carbon and hydrogen

organic compounds

(peptides, amines, ammonia, water etc.)




•Unequal sharing of electrons due to


significantly different electronegativities




•Most important polar covalent bonds involve hydrogen




polar covalent bonds

–Occur when two atoms with vastly different electronegativities come together
–Atoms have either positive (cation) or negative (anion) charges


–Cations and anions attract each other and form __________ (no electrons shared)
–Typically form crystalline ionic compounds known as salts
–Eg. Sodium chloride, potassium chloride
Ionization (dissociation)


polar bonds of water molecules interfere with _____________ of salts – form electrolytes (conduct electricity and are critical for life)

Ionic bonds


– Weak forces that combine with polar covalent


bonds
– Electrical attraction between partially charged


H+ and full or partial negative charge on same


or different molecule
– Weaker than covalent bonds but essential for


life


Many help to stabilize 3-D shapes of large


molecules


hydrogen bonds

(nucleic acids, enzymes, antibodies, intercellular chemical messengers, recognition of target cells by pathogens)




= examples of what type of bonds?




hydrogen bonds


- involve the formation of larger, more complex molecules




require energy (endothermic




in an organism all reactions of this type are called anabolism


Synthesis reactions







what kind of macromolecule is an organisms natural buffer


proteins macromolecules act as natural ___________ in organisms




propioniibacterium acnes pH=?

pH 4= what organism commonly found what part of the body

Helicobacter pylori pH=?

pH 1.5 an organism found in what part of the body

Dissociation of Acids and bases

The pH scale

compounds that dissociate in water into cations and anion other than H+ and OH-




transfer electrons from one location to another





Salts



Atoms often appear in certain common arrangements called ___________
________ often appear in certain common arragenments called functional groups
________________________ are the basic building blocks of macromolecules

Monomers are the basic building blocks of _____________.

____________=large molecules used by all organisms




lipids


carbohydrates


proteins


nucleic acids



macromolecules used by all organisms=?

___________ are all hydrophobic




steroids (fluidity of the membrane)




waxes (protection or energy storage)




phosphor_______ (membranes)

Lipids

phospholipids

–Containone long-chain fatty acid covalently linked to long-chain alcohol by ester bond

–Completelyinsoluble in water; lack hydrophilic head


–Mycobacterium tuberculosis issurrounded by a _____ wall, making them resistant to drying. Some marinemicrobes use waxes instead of fats as energy storage molecules.


waxes description...
KEEP MEMBRANE FLUID AND FLEXIBLE @ LOW TEMPERATURES



STEROID STRUCTURE



Fats (triglycerides)- Store Energy

Phospholipids

organic molecules composed of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen




function:


ready energy


part of the backbone of nucleic acids


converted to amino acids


corm cell wall




carbohydrates
3 types of carbohydrates...


monosacharides


disaccharides


polysaccharides

Starch, Glycogen, cellulose


=?


peptidoglycan in bacteria




polysaccharides




sucrose, maltose, lactose


=?



disaccharides



pentoses, hexoses


=?




monosacharides

__________ are mostly composed of carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, and sulfur




Funtions


.structure cell walls, membranes


.enzymatic catalysis catalysts


.regulation stimulate or hinder


.transportation channels pumps


.defense and offense (antibodies,


complement

Proteins


composition?


functions?

the monomers that make up proteins




A covalent bond (peptide bond) is formed between ______ ______ by dehydration synthesis


reaction.



Amino acids

monomers that make up _______ _____




composed of three parts


phosphate


pentose sugar (deoxyribose or ribose)


one of five cyclic nitrogenous bases




Nucleic Acids

nucleic acids

nucleic acid bases

Energy currency

energy released from the high energy phosphate bonds of _______ is used for life sustaining activities such as synthesis reactions, locomotion, transportation of substance into and out of the cell.

ATP

ATP- Energy




2 Coenzymes: ___________, __________


FAD, NAD