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16 Cards in this Set

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What is Cholinergic transmission?

Transmission via ACh

ACh structure

Acetate linked to choline through a ester linkage

Acetate linked to choline through a ester linkage

What signals release of ACh from neurons?

Voltage gated calcium channels open


Signals release of ACh

Voltage gated calcium channels open




Signals release of ACh

Recycling of ACh/Choline

ACh at synapse broken down into choline and aceate




Choline reabsorbed into neuron terminal




Acetate cleaved from AcetylCoa, free acetate bound to recycled choline




Forming new ACh

What enzyme is responsible to breaking down ACH at synapse?

Acetlycholineesterase, breaks the ester bond between choline and aceate,


Forms choline and acetic acid

Acetlycholineesterase, breaks the ester bond between choline and aceate,




Forms choline and acetic acid

What enzyme transfers choline to acetate?

Choline Acetyl Transferase

Choline Acetyl Transferase

What are the 2 types of ACH receptor?

1) Nicotinic


Ligand-gated ion channel


Fast transmission


2) Muscarinic


GP-coupled


Slow

1) Nicotinic




Ligand-gated ion channel




Fast transmission




2) Muscarinic




GP-coupled




Slow





ACh receptor diversity

Noradrenalin, and adrenalin structure




What do they share?




What is their difference?

Both are catecholamines, they have a catechol group


Adrenalin has a additional methyl group

Both are catecholamines, they have a catechol group




Adrenalin has a additional methyl group

What happens to Noradrenalin after release?

Not broken down its reabsorbed


Re-uptake helps to terminate the signal

Not broken down its reabsorbed




Re-uptake helps to terminate the signal

Other than re-uptake by the neuron , how else is NE signal terminated?

Intracellular metabolic enzymes




1) Monoamine oxidase (MAO)




2) Catechol-O-methyl transferase (COMT)





What is a ganglion?

Collection of cell bodies outside CNS

Sympathetic NS organisation?

Pre:- ACh, short




Post:- Long, NE




Thoracolumbar arrangement

Parasympathetic NS organisation?

Pre:- ACh nicotinic, long



Post:- ACh muscarinic, long




Craniosacral arrangement

Adrenal medulla

Part of sympathetic


Pre-ganglionic neuron synapses onto Adrenal medulla


ACh nictonic


Adrenal medulla releases NE and E into blood (hormones)

Part of sympathetic




Pre-ganglionic neuron synapses onto Adrenal medulla




ACh nictonic




Adrenal medulla releases NE and E into blood (hormones)





Vagus nerve?

A parasympathetic nerve connected to the heart


ACh acts of SA node, decreasing basal tone of heart


Atropine is a drug that blocks the ACh receptor on SA node, increasing its heart rate

A parasympathetic nerve connected to the heart




ACh acts of SA node, decreasing basal tone of heart




Atropine is a drug that blocks the ACh receptor on SA node, increasing its heart rate