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77 Cards in this Set

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Damon's Three Stages of Friendship
*Friendship as a Handy Playmate (4-7 years)
*Friendship as Mutual Trust and Assistance (8-10 years)
*Friendship as Intimacy, Mutual Understanding, and Loyalty (11+ years)
peer groups
collectives that generate unique values and standards for behavior and a social structure of leaders and followers
Instrumental (Proactive) Aggression
aimed at obtaining an object, privilege, or space with no deliberate attempt to harm another person
Hostile (Reactive) Aggression
intended to harm another person
Relational Aggression
aggression that damages another's peer relationships, as in social exclusion or rumor spreading
Overt (Physical) Aggression
aggression that harms others through physical injury of the threat of such injury
Authoritative Parenting
A parenting style that is demanding and responsive. A rational, democratic approach in which both parents’ and children’s rights are respected.
Attributes of Authoritative Parenting
- make reasonable demands for maturity

- enforce them by setting limits and insisting on obedience

- express warmth and affection and responsiveness
- listen patiently to their child’s point of view
- encourage participation in family decision making
- inductive reasoning (e.g., reasoning about consequences of actions to self and to others)
- good natured/easy going
- involved in child’s life (school, homework, activities, etc.)
Permissive Parenting
A parenting style that is responsive but undemanding. An overly tolerant approach to child rearing.
Attributes of Permissive Parenting
- nurturing and accepting, but avoids making demands or imposing controls
- complete independence in decision making (regardless of age or context)
- no rules
- no constraints on behavior
4 Child-Rearing styles
Authoritarian Parenting
A parenting style that is demanding but low in responsiveness to children’s rights and needs. Conformity and obedience are valued over open communication.
Attributes of Authoriarian Parenting
- very little give-and-take
- cold, harsh, unresponsive, even rejecting
- parent centered
- forceful
- physical punishment (e.g., spanking, slapping, grabbing)
- verbal hostility (e.g., yelling threatening demeaning, etc.)
- coercive
- uninvolved
Uninvolved (or neglectful) Parenting
A parenting style that is both undemanding and unresponsive. Reflects minimal commitment to child rearing.
Oversolicitous Parenting
A parenting style that is overprotective and over controlling.
Attributes of Oversolicitous Parenting
- not allowing children to make decisions for themselves
- not allowing children to try new things
- encourage dependence on parents
- handle all problems for their children
Outcomes of Authoritative Parenting
*Lively happy mood
*High self-esteem and self-control
*Less traditional gender-role behavior
*Social and moral maturity
*Academic achievement and educational attainment
*Perspective taking skills
*Consequential thinking
*Friendly-assertive sociable behavior
*Peer acceptance
*Emotion regulation
*Lower levels of internalizing and externalizing behaviors
*Better communication skills
Outcomes of Permissive Parenting
*Dependent on adults
*Poor Persistence at tasks
*Poor self control and school performance
*Drug use
Outcomes of Authoritarian Parenting
*Anxious, withdrawn, and unhappy mood
*Hostile and angry when frustrated
(emotional dysregulation)
*More misattributions of hostile intent
*Fewer social strategies
*Externalizing disorders
(e.g., aggressive, disruptive, etc.)
*Peer rejection
*Lower communication competence
Outcomes of Uninvolved Parenting
Deficits in attachment, cognition, play, and emotional and social skills; aggressive disruptive
Outcomes of Oversolicitous Parenting
*Social fearfulness
*Social withdrawal
*Negative self-regard
*Peer rejections
a sense of oneself as a separate, self-governing individual
-rely on self more than parents
-weigh own judgment and suggestions of others to arrive at a self-reasoned action when making decisions.
Perspective taking
"The capacity to imagine what other people may be thinking and feeling."
-parents exercise general oversight while letting children take charge of moment by moment decision making
-Parents communicate expectations/monitor from a distance.
-Children turn to parents for support, advice, affection
family size now vs. 1960s
1960's: 3.1 children/family
now: 1.8 children/family
approximate proportion of marriages ending up in divorce
4 levels of social complexity
-within individuals
-within interactions
-within relationships
-within groups
Within Individuals
individuals bring:
-stable social orientations
-social skills
The braiding of the behaviors of two individuals into a social exchange of some duration,
-each actor’s behavior is both a response to, and stimulus for, the other participant’s behavior.
Interactions are affected by
1. Individual characteristics of participants
2. Short-term and long-term personal goals
3. Understanding of partner’s thoughts and feelings in the situation
4. Repertoire of alternative responses
5. Environmental features
Succession of interactions between two individuals known to each other
Closeness of relationship determined by:
A. Frequency and strength of influence
B. Diversity of influence across different behaviors
C. Length of time the relationship has endured.
6 factors of relationships:
1. Influenced by past interactions and expectations for future interactions.
2. Closeness of relationship
3. Defined by emotions experienced within them
4. Commitment (to continuance)
5. Uniqueness
6. include role differentiation, specialization, division of labor, sense of shared membership, and shared culture.
-Collection of interacting individuals who have some degree of reciprocal influence over one another.
-Formed out of common interests or circumstances or formally
- emerge from the features and patterning of the relationships and interactions present within a population
-Affect individual members by: Labels, Status hierarchies, Segregation, and Cohesiveness
Properties of Groups
-Cohesiveness (degree of unity and inclusiveness)
-Hierarchy (ordering of individual relationships along interesting dimensions)
-Heterogeneity (consistency across members in the ascribed/achieved personal characteristics)
-Norms (distinctive patterns of behaviors/attitudes that characterize group members and differentiate from nonmembers)
4 levels of social play
Nonsocial Play
Parallel Play
Associative Play
Cooperative Play
Nonsocial Play
unoccupied, onlooker behavior and solitary play
Parallel Play
child plays near other children with similar materials but does not try to influence their behavior
Associative Play
children engage in separate activities but exchange toys and comment on one another's behavior
Cooperative Play
more advanced type of interaction, children orient toward a common goal, such as acting out a make-believe theme
solitary-passive withdrawal
-quiescent exploration of objects and/or constructive activity while playing alone.
-At first not really rejected because no one knows who they are.
-onlooking and/or being unoccupied. -Rejected at an earlier time because they are always "hanging" around but too afraid to play.
solitary-active withdrawal
-solitary-functional play (repeated sensorimotor actions with or without objects) and/or by solitary dramatic/pretend play.
-Sometimes aggressive, rejected early.
Influences on peer sociability
parental encouragment,
age mix of children,
cultural values
Peer Acceptance
likability - the extent to which a child is viewed by a group of agemates, such as classmates, as a worthy social partner.
-Not a mutual relationship, is a one-sided perspective
sociometric techniques
self reports which measure social preferences
example: asking children to rate peers on a scale from "like very much" to "like very little"
peer reputation
young people's judgments of the peers most of their classmates admire
-identifies peers that are high in social prominence
small groups of about five to seven members who are friends and, therefore, usually resemble one another in family background, attitudes, and values
a loosely organized group formed from several cliques with similiar values
Popular-prosocial children
A subgroup of popular children who combine academic and social competence
Popular-antisocial children
A subgroup of popular children largely made up of “tough” boys who are athletically skilled, highly aggressive, defiant of adult authority, and poor students
Rejected-aggressive children
A subgroup of rejected children who engage in high rates of conflict, hostility, and hyperactive, inattentive, and impulsive behavior
Rejected-withdrawn children
A subgroup of rejected children who are passive and socially awkward
Dominance Hierarchy
A stable ordering of group members that predicts who will win when conflict arises
-encounters used to evaluate own and others' strength in a safe venue before challenging a peer's dominance
3 forms of aggression
physical aggression
relational aggression
verbal aggression
Average time American children spend watching television each week
24 hours
Benefits of small schools and classrooms
-higher scores in reading and math
-better concentration
-higher-quality class participation,
-more favorable attitudes towards school.
-fewer drop outs
Educational self-fulfilling prophecy
Children may adopt teachers' positive or negative views and start to live up to them.
Risks involved with adolescents who work more than 15 hours during high school
drug abuse
less connected to family
bad grades (no college)
poor mentors
little aspiration
bad attitude towards school
Planner Couples
both mother and father plan to have the baby
Acceptance of Fate Couple
"If we get pregnant, we get pregnant, if not, thats okay too"
Ambivalent Couple
can't decide whether or not to have the baby. Sometimes yes, sometimes no.
yes/no couples
one spouse wants to have a child, one doesn't.
Stressors to marriage after baby
-division of household labors (!)
-time together
-sexual relationship
-need for time alone
-money management
-ideas about how to raise children
Benefits of fathers who play with their children
children tend to:
- be better emotional regulators and readers
- manage frustration better
- willing to explore new things and activities
- persist longer in problem solving
General characteristics of aggressive children (NOT comprehensive..)
poor-quality friendships,
antisocial activity
*Social-cognitive deficits
*Over the top self-esteem
*Delayed development of morals
*thinks everyone has hostile intent
Selman's Stages of Perspective Taking
1. Undifferentiated
2. Social-Informational
3. Self-Reflective
4. Third Party
5. Societal
Undifferentiated Perspective
- 3 to 6 years
-1st stage in Selman's Stages of Perspective Taking
-Children recognize that everyone has different thoughts and feeling, but often confuse the two.
Social - Informational Perspective
-4 to 9 years.
-2nd stage in Selman's Stages of Perspective Taking
-Children understand that different perspectives come from different info
Self-Reflective Perspective
-7 to 12
-3rd stage in Selman's Stages of Perspective Taking
-children "step into another person's shoes"
Third Party Perspective
-10 to 15
-4th stage in Selman's Stages of Perspective Taking
- Children step out of a situation and see how 3rd party views it.
Societal perspective
-15 years to adult
- 5th stage in Selman's Stages of Perspective Taking
-3rd party, perspective can be influenced by society.
Inclusive classrooms
putting students with learning disabilities and mild retardation in normal classrooms for all or part of the day
Traditional classroom
the teacher is the sole authority for knowledge, rules, and decision making and does most of the talking
Constructivist classroom
encourages students to construct their own knowledge
grounded in Piaget’s view of children as active agents
Social constructivist classroom
children participate in a wide range of challenging activities with teachers and peers, with whom they jointly construct understandings,