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28 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back

Psychosocial development

According to Erikson, development that encompasses changes both in the understandings individuals have of themselves as members of society and in their comprehension of the meaning of others' behavior

Initiative-versus-guilt stage

According to Erikson, the period during which children ages 3 to 6 years experience conflict between independence of action and the sometimes negative results of that action


A person's identity or self of beliefs about what one is like as an individual

Collectivistic orientation

A philosophy that promotes the notion of interdependence

Individualistic orientation

A philosophy that emphasizes personal identity and the uniqueness of the individual

Race dissonance

The phenomenon in which minority children indicate preferences for majority values or people


The process in which children attempt to be similar to their parent of the same sex, incorporating the parent's attitudes and values

Gender identity

The perception of oneself as male or female

Gender schema

A cognitive framework that organizes information relevant to gender

Gender constancy

The fact that people are permanently males to females, depending on fixed, unchangeable biological factors

Functional play

Play that involves simple, repetitive activities typical of 3-year-olds

Constructive play

Play i which children manipulate objects to produce or build something

Parallel play

Action in which children play with similar toys, in a similar manner, but do not interact with each other

Onlooker play

Action in which children simply watch others at play but do not actually participate themselves

Associative play

Play in which two or more children interact by sharing or borrowing toys or materials, although they do not do the same thing

Cooperative play

Play in which children genuinely interact with one another, taking turns, playing games, or devising contests

Authoritarian parents

Parents who are controlling, punitive, rigid, and cold and whose word is law; they value strict, unquestioning obedience from their children and do not tolerate expressions of disagreement

Permissive parents

Parents who provide lax and inconsistent feedback and require little of their children

Authoritative parents

Parents who arm firm, setting clear and consistent limits, but try to reason with their children, explaining why they should behave in a particular way

Uninvolved parents

Parents who show virtually no interest in their children, displaying indifferent, rejecting behavior

Moral development

The maturation of people's sense of justice, of what is right and wrong, and their behavior in connection with such issues

Prosocial behavior

Helping behavior that benefits others

Abstract modeling

The process in which modeling paves the way for the development of more general rules and principles


The understanding of what another individual feels


Intentional injury or harm to another person

Emotional self-regulation

The capability to adjust one's emotions to a desired state and level of intensity

Instrumental aggression

Aggression motivated by the desire to obtain a concrete goal

Relational aggression

Nonphysical aggression that is intended to hurt another person's psychological well-being