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37 Cards in this Set

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T or F: Perception is highly personal.

True.

Everything we experience comes through our ______ ______ at some time.

Sensory apparatus.

The senses are well developed ______.

Prenatally.

Sensory capacities are geared toward the ______ ______.

Social Environment.

T or F: Senses develop, therefore perceptions can change.

True.

Constructivists

-On the side of nurture.


-Argue that perceptions are constructed through learning.


-Require stimulation to develop, i.e. input from the environment(vision and hearing).

Nativists

-On the side of nature.


-Argue that innate capabilities and maturational programs drive perceptual development and that perception does not require interpretation.

Preferential Looking

Duration of looking at one of a stimulus pair.

Habituation

Learning to be bored.

Operant Conditioning

-Learn to react to one stimulus.


-Discriminate second stimulus.

Evoked Potentials

Record brain's response to stimuli.

Assessing Infant Perception

-Behavioral change.


-Preferential looking.


-Habituation.


-Operant conditioning.


-Evoked potentials.

T or F: Visual development is the first to develop.

False. It is last.

By ______ month pc rods and cones on retina are wired.

6th.

By _____ month pc eyes anatomically complete and functional. (The baby can get startled and blink/turn away from a bright light).

7th.

Myelination of the optic nerve by birth (but thin), complete by ______.

2.5 months.

T or F: Structures do develop at the same rate.

False. They do not.

______. ______, ______ are relatively large.

Lens, cornea, retina.

T or F: Eye of newborn is 1/4 size.

False. It is 1/2 size.

Newborn visual acuity is ______(Legally blind).

20/600.

When will a baby's vision be 20/20?

By a year old.

Color perception discrimination from ______ months pc (cones).

6 months.

At birth, ______ and ______ most pronounced (black/white).

Reds, greens.

Visual Cliff Experiment

-Gibson and Walk (1960s).


-Human babies were put on glass and can see cliff underneath but not aware of glass protecting.


-Enough convincing from mother will get them across or keep them back.

Three Main Components of Pattern Perception.

-Contour(angles,curves,slope).


-Contrast(light/dark; color).


-Movement.

1947 Bernard & Sontag

-Prenatal hearing.


-Startle responses to loud sounds.


-Can experience prenatal hearing loss.

Amniotic fluid in a newborns ears leads to ______ ______ in the first few days.

Rapid Improvement.

Frequency

-Pitch.


-Range 20-20,000 Hz.


-Middle C 262 Hz.


-Most sensitive 100-4000 Hz.


-Human speech 200-2000 Hz.

Amplitude

"loudness/intensity"

Decibels are ______(10dB=2X).

Logarithmic. 50dB is 2x loud as 40dB.

Thresholds of audition (minimum levels)

-Infants 20-30 dB (hear all normal conversation).


-Adults 5-10 dB.


-Age 55 15-20 dB.


-Age 75 30 dB.

T or F: Pitch discrimination improves with age.

True.

Less than ______ of people have hearing problems before age 55.

20%.

Taste buds are present and functional before ______ month pc.

4th.

______ ______ is one of the sweetest naturally occurring substances.

Breast milk.

Babies dislike ______ and ______ and prefer ______.

Sour, bitter, sweet.

Measures of Taste

-Facial expression.


-Sucking rate.


-Duration.


-Swallowing.


-Spitting.