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65 Cards in this Set

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Lobar, segmental atelectasis?

Endobronchial lesion
Extrinsic bronchial compression:
Tumor
Lymphadenopathy
Bronchial torsion

Causes of consolidation?

Fluid in acini:
Water
Blood
Proteinaceous fluid
Inflammatory exudate in acini:
Infection
Noninfectious
Tumor in acini

Transient airspace/migratory

Haemorrhage


eosinphylic pneumonia


Churg strauss


COP


recurrent aspiration


Causes for pulmonary haemorrhage

ARDS causes?

Massive pneumonia
Trauma
Shock
Sepsis
Pancreatitis
Drug OD
Near-Drowning
Aspiration

Chronic 

Chronic

Tumors:

Bronchioalveolar carcinoma

Lymphoma

Inflammation:

TB, fungus

Eosinophilic PNA

Pneumonitis, BOOP/COP

Alveolar sarcoid

Alveolar proteinosis

Pulmonary hemorrhage

Lipoid PNA

Chronic aspiration

Tumors:
Bronchioalveolar carcinoma
Lymphoma
Inflammation:
TB, fungus
Eosinophilic PNA
Pneumonitis, BOOP/COP
Alveolar sarcoid
Alveolar proteinosis
Pulmonary hemorrhage
Lipoid PNA
Chronic aspiration

Tumor:
Solitary met
Inflammation:
Vascular:
AVF
Pulmonary varix
Infarct, embolism
Congenital:
Sequestration
Bronchial cyst
Round PNA
Loculated effusion in fisure
Mucus plug
Enlarged subpleural LN
Silicosis

Mets
Abscess
Granulomatous disease:
Infections (TB, Aspergillus, Histo)
Sarcoid
Rheumatoid nodules
Silicosis
Wegener's (c-ANCA)
Necrotizing granulomatous vascular

TB
Histoplasmosis
Mets (thyroid, melanoma, breast, choriocarcinoma)
Eosinophilic granuloma
Bronchioalveolar ca.
Silicosis
Sarcoid

Calcified lung nodules?

Calcified lung nodules?

Larger (> 1 mm):
Mets from medullary thyroid ca
Mucinous or osteogenic mets
Previous varicella PNA
Histoplasmosis
Coccidiodomyocosis
TB
Schistosomiasis
Silicosis
Very small (0.1-1mm, sandlike):
Alveolar microlithiasis
Chronic pulmonary venous HTN
Metastatic calcification from severe renal disease

Large (>6cm) thoracic mass?

Pulmonary:
Bronchogenic ca
Mets (SCCa from head/neck)
Abscess
Round atelectasis
Intrapulmonary sequestration
Hydatid disease
Extra-pulmonary:
Fibrous tumor of pleura
Loculated pleural effusion
Torsed pulmonary lobe
Askin's tumor
AAA
Mediastinal masses

Upper lung zone opacities with calcified adenopathy?

Silicosis
Sarcoidosis
Berylliosis
Coal worker's pneumoconiosis
TB

empyema necessitans



Actinomyces
Nocardia
TB
Blastomyces
Aspergillus

Infection with lymphadenopathy?

TB
Histoplasmosis
EBV

Pulmonary cysts?



Pneumatocele
Bulla, bleb
Cystic bronchiectasis
Congenital cysts
Intrapulmonary bronchogenic cysts
CCAM
Sequestration
Hydatid cysts

Abscess:
Pyogenic
Immunocompromised (Nocardia, Legionella)



Cavitated tumor:
SCCa
Sarcoma
Lymphoma
TCC of bladder




Cavitated granulomatous mass:
Aspergillus
Coccidiodomycosis
TB
Sarcoid
Wegener's
Rheumatoid nodules
Necrotizing granulomatous vasculitis
Cavitated post-traumatic hematoma

Asperigillosis
Mucormycosis
Actinomycosis
Septic emboli
Klebsiella
TB
Tumors

Small cystic disease?

True cyst wall:
Eosinophilic granuloma
Lymphangioleiomyomatosis
Cystic form of PCP
Honeycombing in end-stage interstitial lung disease
No cyst wall:
Emphysema

STARCH LP

Silicosis
Sarcoid
TB
Ankylosing spondylitis
ABPA
Radiotion
Cystic fibrosis
Hypersensitivity
HIstiocytosis/Eosinophilic granuloma
PMF
PCP

"BADRUSH"
Bronchiectasis,BOOP
Aspiration,ASBESTOS
Drugs, Desquamative interstitial pneumonitis
Rheumatoid
UIP
Scleroderma, other collagen vascular diseases
Hamman-Rich(AIP)

Interstitial lung disease
Acute evolution?

"HELP"
Hypersensitivity
Edema
Lymphoproliferative
Pneumonitis, viral

Interstitial lung disease
Chronic evolution?

"LIFE"
Lymphangitic spread
Inflammation, infection
Fibrosis
Edema

Interstitial lung disease
Increased lung volumes?

Cystic fibrosis
Eosiniphilic granuloma
Lymphangioleiomyomatosis

Interstitial lung disease
Decreased lung volumes?

Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis
Scleroderma

Interstitial lung disease
Pleural plaques?

Astestosis

Interstitial lung disease
Pleural effusion

CHF
Lymphangitic carcinomatosis
Rheumatoid disease

Interstitial lung disease
Enlarged lymph nodes?

Malignant adenopathy
TB, fungus
Sarcoid

Interstitial lung disease
Calcified lymph nodes?
Silicosis

HRCT Patterns of Interstitial Lung Disease
Ground glass opacity (GGO)?

Allergic hypersensitivity
All acute interstitial disease
DIP
Active IPF
Viral
PCP
BOOP/COP
Eosinophilic pneumonia
Pulmonary edema

HRCT Patterns of Interstitial Lung Disease
Reticulonodular opacities?

Pulmonary edema
Viral, mycoplasmal PNA, PCP
Lymphangitic tumor spread
Pulmonary fibrosis
IPF
Drugs
Radiation
Collagen vascular disease
Hemosiderosis
Asbestosis

HRCT Patterns of Interstitial Lung Disease
Cystic spaces?

Lymphangioleiomyomatosis
Cystic PCP
Histiocytosis
Honeycombing
IPF
Any end-stage interstitial disease

Pulmonary alveolar proteinosis
ARDS
PCP
Lipoid pneumonia
Hemorrhage
BAC
Pulmonary edema

Halo sign. Early invasive aspergillosis
Hemorrhage around neoplasm
Postbiopsy pseudonodule

Peripheral GGO and consolidation?

BOOP
Infarcts
Septic emboli
Collagen vascular disease
Contusion
DIP
Drug toxicity
Eosinophilic pneumonia
Fibrosis
Sarcoidosis

Eosinophilic lung disease


classification

Responds dramatically to steroid vs Churge strauss(allergic granulomatosis)

Tree-in-bud appearance?

Infection:
TB
Bronchopneumonia
Fungal
Asian panbronchiolitis
Viral pneumonias
Bronchial disease:
Bronchiolitis
Congenital disorders:
CF
Dyskinetic cilia syndrome
Allergic bronchopulmonary asperigillosis (ABPA)
Lymphangitic carcinomatosis
EG

Airways:
Emphysema, bullae
Asthma, mucus plug
Swyer-James
Compensatory hyperexpansion of lung after surgery, collapse
Cysts
Hypogenetic lung syndrome
Congenital lobar emphysema
Vascular:
PE
Pulmonary artery stenosis
Chest wall abnormalities:
Mastectomy
Poland's syndrome
Pleural:
Pneumothorax

Small lung?

Hypogenetic lung syndrome
Agenesis of pulmonary artery
Chronic atelectasis
Swyer-James syndrome

Tracheobronchomegaly (Mounier-Kuhn Syndrome)
Pulmonary fibrosis
Tracheomalacia

Decreased tracheal luminal diameter?

Saber-sheath trachea
Tracheopathia osteochondroplastica
Tracheomalacia
Relapsing polychondritis
Amyloidosis
Sarcoidosis
Wegener's
Tuberculous and fungal stenosis

Bronchiectasis?

Post-infectious:
Any childhood infection
Recurrent aspiration
ABPA: central
Chronic granulomatous infection
Pertussis
Bronchial obstruction:
Neoplasm
Foreign body
Congenital:
CF
Bronchial cartilage deficiency (Williams-Campbell)
Abnormal mucocilliary transport (Kartagener's)

Upper lobe bronchiectasis?

CF
TB
Radiation
ABPA
Mounier-Kuhn
Agammaglobulinemia
Karatagener's

Mucoid (bronchial) impaction?

Asthma
CF
ABPA
Congenital bronchial atresia

pleural based mass



Tumor:
Mesothelioma
Fibrous tumor of pleura
Malignant thymoma, lymphoma
Mets (breast, lung, prostate, thyroid, renal)
Lipoma
Rib tumors
Plexiform neurofibromas
Inflammatory:
TB
Asbestos
Actinomycosis

Calcified pleural plaques?

"TAFT"
TB
Asbestos-related
Fluid (empyema, hematoma)
Talc

Phrenic nerve paralysis
Immobility due to pain:
Rib fx
Pleuritis, PNA
PE
Mass lesions
Abdominal masses, subphrenic collection, abscess
Diaphragmatic hernia
Pleural tumors
Subpulmonic effusion

Pre-vascular space/ Anterior mediastinal masses?



"4 Ts"
Thymoma ( Myasthenia gravis)
Thyroid lesions
T-cell lymphoma
Teratoma

Superior mediastinal masses?



Descending through thoracic inlet:
Thyroid masses
Adenopathy
Lymphatic cysts, cystic hygroma
Ascending through thoracic inlet:
Small cell ca of lung
Lymphoma
Aneurysm and other vascular abnormalities

Middle mediastinal masses?



Adenopathy:
Sarcoid
TB
Fungal
Mets, lymphoma, leukemia
Congenital cysts:
Bronchogenic cysts
Pericardial cysts
Aneurysm:
Aorta, aortic branches
Pulmonary artery
Esophagus:
HH
Neoplasm
Diverticula
Megaesophagus
Mediastinal hemorrhage
Mediastinal lipmatosis
Bronchogenic ca
Aberrant RSA with diverticulum
Varices
Neurinoma from recurrent laryngeal nerve
Malignancy of trachea
Pancreatic pseudocyst

Adenopathy?

Low attn lymph nodes:
TB and fungal
Necrotic mets
Lymphoma
Vascularized lymph nodes:
Castleman's disease
Vascular mets
Calcified lymph nodes:
TB
Histo
Sarcoid
Silicosis
Radiation therapy

Posterior Mediastinal mass?



Neurogenic:
Schwannoma, neurofibroma
Sympathetic ganglia
Pheochromocytoma
Lateral meningomyelocele
Thoracic spine:
Neoplasm
Hematoma
Extramedullary hematopoiesis
Diskitis
Vascular:
Aneurysm
Azygos continuation

Fat pad
Diaphragmatic hernia
Morgagni
Bochdalek
Pericardial cyst
Cardiophrenic angle nodes
Aneurysm
Dilated right atrium
Anterior mediastinal mass
Primary lung or pleural mass

Fatty mediastinal lesions?



Mediastinal lipomatosis
Morgagni's hernia
Bochdalek's hernia
Periesophageal fat herniation
Lipoma
Liposarcoma
Thymolipoma
Germ cell tumors

Silicosis

Densely enhancing mediastinal mass?

Vascular:
Aneurysm
Vascular abnormalities
Esophageal varices
Hypervascular tumors
Goiter
Castleman's disease

Eggshell calcification in hilar nodes?

Silicosis
CWP
Treated lymphoma
Granulomatous disease
Sarcoid

Pneumo mediastinum

Pulmonary:
Asthma
Barotrauma
Childbirth
Pneumothorax
Mediastinum:
Tracheobronchial laceration
Esophageal perforation
Mediastinal surgery
Boerhaave's
Abdomen:
Intraperitoneal or retroperitoneal bowel perf
Retroperitoneal surgery
Head and neck:
Esophageal rupture
Facial fractures
Dental or retropharyngeal infection, mediastinitis

Wegeners

-  Necrotizing granulomatous vasculitis of small to medium-sized


- ELK presentation


- Trachea and bronchi concentrically thickened


- Cavitary nodules and  haemorrhage


- 70-90% c- ANCA pos

- Necrotizing granulomatous vasculitis of small to medium-sized


- ELK presentation


- Trachea and bronchi concentrically thickened


- Cavitary nodules and haemorrhage


- 70-90% c- ANCA pos

Perilymphatic nodules

sarcoid
silicosis
lymphangitis
kaposi- more flame shaped


Lymphoma

random nodules

pleura maybe involved
milliary tb, fungus or mets

centrilobular nodues

endo bronchial infection
hypersensitivity pneumonitis
vasculitis

round atelectasis vs tumour

due to pleural thickening (like asbestos)
-air bronchogram
-avid homogenous enhancement (only capillaries no air in tissue)

α1-antitrypsin deficiency


 


- Protease inhibitor for elastase enzyme


- Alpha 1-antitrypsin (A1AT) is produced in the liver, and one of its functions is to protect the lungs from neutrophil elastase,


 - In its absence, neutrophil...

α1-antitrypsin deficiency



- Protease inhibitor for elastase enzyme


- Alpha 1-antitrypsin (A1AT) is produced in the liver, and one of its functions is to protect the lungs from neutrophil elastase,


- In its absence, neutrophil elastase is free to break down elastin, which contributes to the elasticity of the lungs, resulting in respiratory complications such as emphysema, or COPD (chronic obstructive pulmonary disease) in adults and cirrhosis in adults or children.


deposition of excessive abnormal A1AT protein in liver cells

LPD

PE in pregnancy