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37 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
What is ionic bonding?
Electrostatic attraction between opppositely charged ions. 3D lattice arrangement. High MP & BP.
What about covalent bonding?
Shared pair of electrons. Stronger covalent bonds, but weak forces of attraction between the intermolecular forces between molecules.
Giant Covalent Structure:
Strong covalent bonds, lots of energy, insoluble in water. Diamond - 4 covalent bonds. Graphite - 3 layers, can slide over each other. Free electrons, used as a lubricant.
What is an isotope?
Different forms of the same atom with the same number of protons but different number of neutrons.
What is Avagadro's constant?
6 x 10 to the power of 23.
Why can ionic substances conduct electricity?
Ionic compounds have a lattice of + and - ions, current is when ions are free there's a sea of delocalised electrons.
What is formed at the cathode and anode for the following? Sulfuric acid? Sodium Chloride? Copper Sulfate?
1) Hydrogen and OH.
2) Hydrogen and Chlorine.
3) Copper and OH.
Group 7 colours:
Fluorine, Pale Yellow.
Chlorine, Green. Bromine, Brown. Iodine, Dark Grey.
Acid + Metal >
Salt + Hydrogen
How can you prevent rusting?
In order to prevent Iron + water + Oxygen > Iron (III) Hydrated Oxide. You can paint, oil, grease, or galvanise with a sacrificial anode.
What's the catalyst for forming Oxygen through Hydrogen Peroxide?
Manganese Oxide.
Iron & Phosphorus can test how much Oxygen is in the air. What's the catalyst?
Acetic Acid
What happens when magnesium and carbon are burned with Oxygen?
White flame + powder, C - yellow flame, CO2 produced. Sulfur - blue.
Why is CO2 good and bad?
Greenhouse gases, insulating layer, radiation is trapped. Deforestation. Climate change..
Used in carbonated drinks, and fire extinguishers.
Cation Tests:
Li - red, Ca - black/red, K - lilac, Na - Orange.
Precipitate Hydroxide:
Copper - Blue. Iron (III) brown. Iron (II), green.
Test for Anions: Carbonates, Sulfates, and Halides.
Carboantes: HCl, give off CO2.
Sulfates: HCl, Barium Chloride - white precipitate. HCl gets rid of Carbonate.
Halides: Nitric acid, silver nitrate.
Chlorine - white, Bromine - cream, Iodine - yellow.
Ethene + Steam, Conditions. Pros and Cons.
60-70 atmos. 300c. Phosphoric acid catalyst.
It's fast, pure, but a finite resource. It needs expensive equipment, but has low labour costs.
Fermentation. Go!
Slow, impure, sugar is renewable, cheap equipment. High labour costs. Only 30c needed, can be used for alcohol.
Ethanol can be dehydrated. What does is produce, and what is the catalyst?
Ethene needs an Aluminium catalyst. Broken down intro C2H4 and water.
Acid + Metal Oxide >
Salt + Water
Acid + Metal Carbonate >
Salt + Water + CO2
Soluble salts?
Sodium, potassium, ammonium, nitrates, chlorides, sulfates.
Insoluble salts?
Carboantes, Barium Sul& Calcium Sulfate, Silver Chloride.
Techniques for making salts?
Insoluble: Precipitation.
Soluble: Acid + Insoluble Base.
What 4 factors affect the rate of reaction?
Temperature, concentration, catalyst, size of particles.
When bonds are formed, what sort of enthalpy change is it?
When the temp increases, what side does it favour?
The endothermic reaction.
What conditions are required for the extraction of Aluminium?
Cryolite to lower the temperature. Graphite elctrodes. Bauxite.
What are some uses of Iron and Aluminium?
Iron - Railings, steel.
Aluminium: Doesn't corrode easily 0 drinking cans, foil. High strength to weight ratio. Dense.
Why is acid rain dangerous?
Lakes become acidic. Corrodes limestone buildings.
Cracking conditions?
Silica + Aluminium Oxide catalyst. 600C.
Uses of Poly(Eth), Poly(Prop), and Chloro(Ethene).
Bags, kettles, clothes.
Conditions of the Haber Process
200 atmospheres, 450c, Iron Catalyst.
Conditions for the Contact Process?
450C. Vanadium Oxide catalyst. 2 atmospheres.
1) S+O2 > SO2
2) 2SO2 + O2 > 2SO3.
3) SO3 + H2SO4 > H2S2O7.
4) H2S2O7 + H2O > 2H2SO4.
Uses from the contact process?
Fertiliser, detergent, paint.
Brine: What's formed at each electrode?
Cathode: Hydrogen.
Anode: Chlorine.
Hydroxide ions left in the solution.
What is Chlorine, Hydrogen and Sodium Hydroxide used for?
Bleach & HCl,