• Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off

Card Range To Study



Play button


Play button




Click to flip

Use LEFT and RIGHT arrow keys to navigate between flashcards;

Use UP and DOWN arrow keys to flip the card;

H to show hint;

A reads text to speech;

30 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back

Heisenberg's Uncertainty Principle

States that it impossible at any one time to measure both the velocity and position of an atom/electron


A region of space within which there is a high probability of finding an electron


A subdivision of a main energy level and consists of one or more orbitals of the same energy


A suitable that cannot be split into simpler substances by chemical means


A group of the elements with similar chemical properties in which the atomic weight of the middle element is approximately equal to the average of the other two

Newlands' Octaves

An arrangement of elements in which the first and the eighth element, counting from a particular element, have similar properties

Mendeleev's Periodic Law

When elements are arranged in order of increasing atomic weight, their properties recur periodically

Atomic number

Of an atom is the number of protons in the nucleus of that atom

Modern Periodic Law

When elements are arranged in order of increasing atomic number, the properties of the elements recur periodically

Mass number

Number of protons and neutrons in the nucleus of an atom of that element


Atoms of the same element (they have the same atomic number) which have different mass numbers due to the different number of neutrons in the nucleus

Relative Atomic Mass

The average of the mass numbers of the isotopes of the element

As they occur naturally

Taking their abundances into account and

Expressed on a scale in which the atoms of the carbon 12 isotope have a mass of exactly 12 units

The Principle of Mass Spectrometry

Charged particles moving in a magnetic field are deflected to different extents according to their masses and are thus separated according to their masses

Electron Configuration

Shows the arrangement of electrons in an atom of an element

Aufbau Principle

When building up the electron configuration of an atom in its ground state, the electrons occupy the lowest available energy levels

Hund's Rule of Maximum Multiplicity

When two or more orbitals of equal energy are available, the electrons occupy then singly before filling them in pairs

The Pauli Exclusion Principle

No more than two electrons may occupy an orbital and they must have opposite spin


A substance that is made up of two or more different elements combined together chemically

Octet Rule

When bonding occurs, atoms tend to reach an electron configuration with eight electrons in the outermost energy level


A charged atom or group of atoms

Ionic Bond

The force of attraction between oppositely charged ions in a compound. Ionic bonds are always formed by the complete transfer of electrons from one atom to another

Transition metal

One which forms at least one ion with a partially filled d sublevel


A group of atoms joined together. It is the smallest particle of an element or compound that can exist independently


The number of atoms of hydrogen or any other monovalent element with which each atom of the element combines

Sigma bond

The head - on overlap of two orbitals

Pi bond

Formed by the sideways overlap of p orbitals


The relative attraction that an atom in a molecule has for a shared pair of electrons in a covalent bond

Polar Covalent Bond

A bond in which there is unequal sharing of the pair (or pairs) of electrons. This causes one end of the bond to be slightly positive and the other end to be slightly negative.

Intramolecular bonding

Bonding that takes place within a molecule e.g. covalent

Intermolecular forces

Forces of attraction that exist between molecules e.g. Van der Waals forces and Hydrogen bonding