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36 Cards in this Set

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If metal oxides and metal hydroxides disolve in water, what are these compounds?

Alkalis
What is the word equation for the reaction between an acid and a metal oxide/metal hydroxide?
Acid + Metal oxide = Salt + Water
Acid + Metal hydroxide = Salt + Water
What is the word and symbol equation for the reaction between hydrochloric acid and copper oxide?
Hydrochloric acid + copper oxide = copper chloride + water
2HCl + CuO = CuCl(2) + H(2)O
What is the word and symbol equation for the reaction between sulfuric acid and potassium hydroxide?
Sulfuric acid + potassium hydroxide = Potassium sulphate + Water

H(2)SO(4) + 2KOH = K(2)SO(4) + 2H(2)O
What is the word equation for the reaction between an acid and a carbonate?
Acid + Carbonate = Salt + Water + Carbon dioxide
What is the word and symbol equation for the reaction between phosphoric acid and sodium carbonate?
Phosphoric acid + Sodium carbonate = Sodium phosphate + Water + Carbon dioxide
2H(3)PO(4) + 3Na(2)CO(3) = 2Na(3)PO(4) + 3H(2)O + 3CO2
What is the word and symbol equation for the reaction between hydrochloric acid and sodium carbonate?
Hydrochloric acid + Sodium carbonate = Sodium chloride + Water + Carbon dioxide
2HCl(2) + Na(2)CO(3) = 2NaCl + H(2)O + CO(2)
What is the word equation for the reaction between an acid and ammonia?
Acid + Ammonia = Ammonium salt
What is the word and symbol equation for the reaction between hydrochloric acid and ammonia?
Hydrochloric acid + ammonia = ammonium chloride
HCl + NH(3) = NH(4)Cl
What is the word and symbol equation for the reaction between sulfuric acid and ammonia?
Sulfuric acid + Ammonia = Ammonium sulfate
H(2)SO(4) + NH(3) =(NH,4)2 SO(4)
What are the three main elements in fertilisers?
Nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium
What happens if plants don't get enough of nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium?
Their growth and life processes are affected
Why might plants not recieve enough of the essential elements?
They've been used up from the soil by a previous crop
What do fertilisers do?
Replace the missing elements in the soil or provide more of them
Why are fertilisers used?
To increase the crop yield as the crops can grow faster and bigger
Describe the four steps of eutrophication
1. Fertiliser runs off into rivers and steams
2. The level of nitrates and phosphates in the water increases
3. Algae multiply rapidy from the nutrients = algal bloom = blocks off light to plants = die
4. Aerobic bacteria feed on dead plants and multiply = use up all oxygen = everything dies
Describe the titration method to make ammonia nitrate?
1. Burette, nitric acid solution, ammonia solution and indicator
2. Add methyl orange indicator to ammonia = yellow
3. Slowly add nitric acid to ammonia from burette until it changes to red = neutralised
How do you get solid ammonium nitrate crystals after titration?
Gently evaporate the solution and leave it to crystalise
Why aren't the crystals made in titration pure? How are they made pure?
They contain methyl orange.
Need to note exactly the amount of nitric acid it took to neutralise the amonia and then repeat the method without the indicator
What is the yield of a reaction?
The mass of product that you end up with
What does 100% yield mean?
You got all the product you expected to get
What does 0% yield mean?
No reactants were converted into product
What is the equation for the haber process?
N(2) + 3H(2) = 2NH(3)

REVERSIBLE!
In the haber process why isn't all the nitrogen and hydrogen converted to ammonia?
Because the reaction is reversible
What happens to the nitrogen and hydrogen that do not react? Why does this happen?
They are recycled and passed through again so none is wasted
What conditions are used for the haber process?
Temperature = 450 C
Pressure = 200 atmospheres
Catalyst = Iron
Why are high pressures used in the haber process?
They favour the forward reaction.
The high pressure increases the percentage yield of ammonia.
Why are high temperatures used in the haber process?
They favour the reverse reaction
The high temperature decreases the percentage yield of ammonia
Why isn't a lower temperature used in the haber process?
Lower temperatures mean slower reaction rates so a higher temperature is used to increase the reaction rate
Why is 450C an optimum temperature?
Gives a fast reaction rate and a reasonable percentage yield
What 5 things does production cost depend on?
1. Price of energy
2. Cost of raw materials
3. Labour costs (wages)
4. Plant costs (equipment)
5. Rate of production
What are optimum conditions?
Conditions that give the lowest production cost
How is salt retrieved from underground deposits?
Drilled, blasted and dug out and brought to the surface using machinery
What is rock salt a mixture of?
Salt and impurities
What is solution mining?
Solution mining = Pumping hot water underground =the salt dissolves the the salt solution is forced to the surface by the pressure of the water
What are three uses of rock salt?

Flavour food
On icy roads
Making chemicals