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67 Cards in this Set

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Definition of Melting.

The substance changes from a solid to a liquid.

Definition of Freezing.

The substance changes from a liquid to a solid.

Definition of Condensation.

The substance changes from a gas to a liquid.

Definition of Evaporation

The substance changes from a liquid to a gas.

Definition of Sublimation.

The substance changes from a solid to a gas.

Definition of Deposition.

The substance changes from a gas to a solid.

Define Boyle's Law and give an example.

Pressure and volume have an inverse relationship: P1V1 = P2V2

Define Charles' law and give an example.

Volume and temperature have a direct relationship: V1/T1 = V2/T2

How does one convert degrees Celsius to Kelvin?

(C) + 273.15 = (K)

Describe the motion of particles at absolute zero temperature.

All motion stops.

What is an ionic bond?

One element gives up electrons, and one element takes electrons.

Define saturated, supersaturated, and unsaturated.

- Saturated: a solvent is holding the maximum amount of solute possible.

- Supersaturated: a solvent has been heated and is now holding more solute than it should.

- Unsaturated: a solvent can dissolve more solute than it currently has.

What are the products of neutralization?

Water and a salt.

Give four ways in increase the speed of a reaction.

- Increase surface area

- Increase concentration

- Increase heat

- Add a catalyst

What is the molarity of 0.25 moles of solute in 1.5 L of solution?

0.17 M

Molarity (M) = moles solute/ liters solution

What is the molarity of 1.5 moles of solute in 500 g. of solvent?

3 m.

Molarity (M) = moles solute/ liters solution

1 (L) = 1000 grams

Define quantative vs. quantitative analysis.

- Qualitative: an observable characteristic that is a quality or is descriptive.

- Quantitative: a numerical characteristic.

Define limiting reactant.

The reactant that gets used up first.

What is kinetic molecular theory?

Tiny particles form all matter, and they are constantly in motion.

Define diffusion vs. effusion.

- Diffusion: particles moving through a space (perfume spreading through a room.)

- Effusion: particles moving through a hole (leak in a balloon.)

What is the instrument that measures atmospheric pressure?


What is standard pressure?

- 1 atm

- 101.3 kPa

- 760 mmHg

- 760 torr

What happens to volume as temperature increases (pressure stays the same)?

According to Charles' Law, it increases as well.

Tell what all of the letters in PV = nRT stand for.

P = Pressure

V = Volume

n = Moles

R = Gas Law Constant based on Pressure

T = Temperature in Kelvin

What is the volume of one mole of gas at STP?

22.4 Liters.

Define Inhibitor vs. Catalyst.

- Inhibitor: stops the effects of a catalyst on a reaction.

- Catalyst: speeds up a reaction by lowering the activation energy.

What color does acid make litmus paper turn?


What are the suffix rules for naming acids?

- Binary: hydro___ic acid

- Ternary:

- (ite): ___ous acid

- (ate): ___ic acid

How do you determine if a compound is a base?

If the compound contains hydroxide (OH,) then it's a base.

Define Bronstead-Lowry acid and base.

- Acid: A compound that donates hydrogen.

- Base: A compound that accepts a hydrogen.

The pH of a solution with a concentration of 0.090 M. HCl is what?

pH = 1.0

pH = - log [H3O]

What is there a difference between an ionic and covalent compound.

- Ionic: Electrons are given or taken.

- Covalent: Electrons are shared.

How many calories are needed to raise the temperature of 35g of water from 22.5 •C to 35 •C?

440 calories.

- Q = mC🔺T

- C = 1cal / g•C

What is a dilute vs. concentrated solution?

- Dilute: A solution has a low amount of solute.

- Concentrated: A solvent has a high amount of solute.

What are colligative properties?

Properties that depend on the amount of substances in the container and not what they are.

Name three colligative properties.

- Freezing point

- Boiling point

- Vapor pressure

What is a catalyst?

Catalyst: Speeds up a reaction by lowering the activation energy without being used up.

How can you tell the difference between monoprotic, diprotic, and triprotic acids?

- Monoprotic: 1 hydrogen.

- Diprotic: 2 hydrogens.

- Triprotic: 3 hydrogens.

What is the Law of Conservation of Mass?

Matter cannot be created or destroyed.

What is the molarity of a solution that contains 6.0g of NaOH in 250mL of water?


What happens when vapor pressure of a liquid is equal to atmospheric pressure?

This is the boiling point.

How does a catalyst speed up a reaction?

It lowers the activation energy required for the reaction to take place.

What is an Arrhenius acid and base?

- Acid: Gives off a H+ when dissolved in water.

- Base: Gives of a OH- when dissolved in water.

What is the pH of a neutral solution?


What are the conditions of STP?

- 273.15 K

- 1atm

Define metallic bond.

A bond between 2 metal atoms that are connected by a sea of electrons.

What is molarity?


What happens to reaction rate as particle size increases?

It slows down.

Define and give the properties of a liquid.

- Define volume, but with no definite shape.

- Incompressible.

- Takes the form of the container.

What is temperature?

A measure of the kinetic energy of a substance.

What is the difference between exoteric and endothermic?

- Exothermic: A reaction that releases more energy out if the system than it takes in.

- Endothermic: A reaction that takes in more energy than it releases.

What are the phase changes?

Melting, boiling, condensation, freezing, and sublimating.

In saltwater, what is the solute and solvent?

- Salt: Solute

- Water: Solvent

What does adding antifreeze do to the freezing point?

Lowers the freezing point.

What is the total mass of 9.01x10^23 atoms of helium gas?

5.99g He

What is the gram molecular mass of barium nitrate?


Sugar dissolved in water would be what type of mixture?


Give an example of each of the five types of reaction.

- Synthesis: A + B => AB

- Decomposition: AB => A +B

- Single Replacement: A + BC => AC + B

- Double Replacement: AB + CD => AD + CB

- Combustion: CH4 + O2 => H2O + CO2

Give the characteristics of acids and bases.

- Acid: Starts with H; low pH; sour tasting; electrolyte.

- Base: Ends with OH; high pH; bitter tasting; electrolyte.

What does immiscible mean?

2 liquids that do not mix.

What is activation energy?

The minimum amount of energy required for a reaction to occur.

What type of bonds do organic compounds have?


What is the difference between a straight chain and a branched hydrocarbon?

- Straight Chain: Have no substituents and all carbons are bonded to 1 or 2 other carbons.

- Branched Chain: Have substituents, and all carbons are bonded to 3 or 4 other carbons.

What is the difference between saturated and unsaturated hydrocarbons?

- Saturated: All carbons have the maximum amount of hydrogen possible.

- Unsaturated: Has at least one double or triple bond

What are the prefixes for hydrocarbons between one and 10 carbon atoms long?


What are the suffixes for hydrocarbons that have a double bond?


• A triple bond?


What is the structure of the functional groups for:

- Carboxylic acid

- Alcohol

- Amine


- OH

- NH2