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58 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back

Interatomic forces

The forces between atoms in a molecule

Intermolecular forces

The forces between two molecules

Van der waal forces

Weak intermolecular forces

Dipole dipole forces

Forces between two polar molecules

Induced dipole forces

Forces between two nonpolar molecules

Hydrogen bonding

Forces between molecules in which hydrogen is covalently bonded to nitrogen oxygen or fluorine

Organic molecules

Molecules containing carbon atoms

Functional group

A bond or an atom or a group of atoms that determine the physical and chemical properties of a group of organic compounds


Organic compounds that consist of hydrogen and carbon only

Homo Logus series

A series of organic compounds that can be described by the same general formula or which one member differs from the next with a CH2 group

Saturated compounds

Compounds in which there are no multiple bonds between C atoms in their hydrocarbon chains

Unsaturated compounds

Compounds with one or more multiple bonds between C atoms in their hydrocarbon chains

Molecular formula

A chemical formula that indicates the type of atoms and the correct number of each in a molecule

Structural formula

A structural formula of a compound shows which atoms are attached to which with in the molecule. Atoms are represented by their chemical symbols and lines are used to represent all the bonds that hold the atoms together

Condensed structural formula

This notation shows the way in which atoms are bonded together in a molecule but does not show all bond lines

Structural isomer

Organic molecules with the same molecular formula but different structural formulae


A molecule that consists of a large number of atoms


A large molecule composed of smaller monomer units covalently bonded to each other in a repeating pattern


Small organic molecules that can be covalently bonded to each other in a repeating pattern


A chemical reaction in which monomer molecules joined to form a polymer

Addition polymerisations

A reaction in which small molecules join to form very large molecules by adding on double bonds

Addition polymer

A polymer formed when monomers, usually containing a double bond, combine through an addition reaction

Condensation polymerisations

Molecules of two monomers with different functional groups undergo condensation reactions with the loss of small molecules, usually water

Condensation polymer

A polymer formed by two monomers with different functional groups that are linked together in a condensation reaction in which a small molecule, usually water, is lost

Heat of reaction

The energy absorbed or released in a chemical reaction

Exothermic reactions

Reactions that release energy

Endothermic reaction

Reactions that absorb energy

Activation energy

The minimum energy needed for a reaction to take place

Activated complex

The unstable transition stage from reactants to products

Reaction rate

Is the change in concentration of reactants or products per unit time

Positive catalyst

A substance that increases the rate of a reaction without itself undergoing a permanent change

Open system

One which continuously interacts with its environment

Closed system

One which is isolated from its surroundings

Chemical equilibrium

It is a dynamic equilibrium when the rate of the forward reaction equals the rate of the reverse reaction

Le Chatalier's Principle

When the equilibrium in a closed system is disturbed the system will reinstate a new equilibrium by favouring the reaction that will oppose the disturbance

Arrhenius acid

A substance that produces hydrogen ions (H+)/hydronium ions (H3O+) when it dissolves in water

Lowry-Bronsted Acid

a proton (H+ ion) donor

Lowry-Bronsted Base

a proton (H+ ion) acceptor

Strong acids

Ionise completely in water to form a high concentration of H3O+ ions

Weak acids

Ionise incompletely to form a low concentration of H3O+ ions

Strong bases

Dissociate completely in water to form a high concentration of 0H minus ions

Weak bases

Dissociate/ionise incompletely in water to form a low concentration of 0H minus ions

Concentrated acid/bases

Contain a large amount or a number of moles of acid/space in proportion to the volume of water

Dilutes acid/bases

Contain a small amount or number of moles of acid/base in proportion to the volume of water

Ampholyte/amphiprotic substance

A substance that can act as either an acid or a base

Auto ionisation of water

The reaction of water with it self to form H3O plus ions and 0H minus ions


The equilibrium constant for the ionisation of water


A loss of electrons, an increase in oxidation number


A gain of electrons, a decrease in oxidation number

Oxidising agent

A substance that is reduced/gains electrons

Reducing agent

A substance that is oxidised/loses electrons


The electrode where oxidation takes place


The electrode where reduction takes place


A solution/liquid/dissolved substances that conducts electricity through the movement of ions


The chemical process in which electrical energy is converted to chemical energy or the use of electrical energy to produce a chemical change

Galvanic cell

Self-sustaining reaction, conversion of chemical energy to electrical energy

Electrolytic cell

Electrode reaction sustained by a supply of electrical energy, conversion of electrical energy into chemical energy


The process by which an ecosystem, E. G. A river or dam, becomes enriched with inorganic plant nutrients, especially phosphorus and nitrogen, resulting in excessive plant growth. As plant growth becomes excessive the amount of dead and decaying plant material increases rapidly.