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220 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
a systematic approach used in all scientific study
scientific method
anything that takes up space and has mass
matter
a chemical that protects organisms from UV rays
ozone
any substance with a definite composition
chemical
a visual, verbal or mathematical explanation on how things occur
model
the study of matter and the changes it undergoes
chemistry
the act of gathering information
observation
a judgment based on the information obtained during an experiment
conclusion
the practical use of scientific research
technology
a chemical made up of chlorine, fluorine, and carbon
chlorofluorocarbon
describe qualitative data
information that describes the subjects physical features such as color, odor, shape
describe quantitative data
the numerical information of a subject, such as height
describe hypothesis
educated guess or explanation for an observasion
describe theory
an explanation that has been supported many, many times
describe dependent variable
the variable that changes in response to the independent variable
describe independent variable
the variable you change
Which of the following is not matter?
a. atoms
b.UV radiation
c.air
d.the Sun
b. UV radiation
at the end of an experiment, the scientist forms a conclusion based on the
a. variable
b. scientific law
c. data obtained
d. control
c. data obtained
which of the following is a set of controlled observations that tests a hypothesis?
a. mass
b. experiment
c. weight
d. constant
b. experiment
the branch of chemistry that focuses on carbon-containing chemical is called?
a. analytical chemistry
b. inorganic chemistry
c. biochemistry
d. organic chemistry
s. organic chemistry
how should you prepare an acid solution?
a. add water to the acid all at once
b. add the acid to the water all at once
c. add the water to the acid very slowly
d. add the acid to the water very slowly
d. add the acid to the water very slowly
pure research or applied research

a researcher analyzes different compounds that might be sources of cancer drugs
applied research
pure research or applied research
researchers study the components of living cells
pure research
pure research or applied research
researchers look for vaccine to prevent AIDS infection
applied research
pure research or applied research
a researcher works on ways to improve agricultural yields
applied research
pure research or applied research
a research
observes chimpanzees in their natural habitat to learn about their behavior
pure research
pure research or applied research
a researcher analyzes composition of Jupiter's atmosphere
pure research
pure research or applied research
a researcher designs more efficient internal combustion engine
applied research
a defined unit in a system of measurement that is based on an object or event in the physical world
base unit
a unit in a system of measurement that is defined by combining base units
derived unit
a visual display of data that may include plotting data on x- and y axes
graph
refers to how close a measured value is to an accepted value
accuracy
a ratio of equivalent values used to express the same quantity in different units
conversion factor
a method of problem solving that focuses on the units used to describe matter often using conversion factors
dimensional analysis
the SI base unit for temperature
kelvin
the ratio of an error to an accepted value
percent error
refers to how close a series of measurements are to one another
precision
the SI base unit of time is ________.
second
the SI base unit for length is ________.
meter
the SI base unit for mass is the ______.
kilogram
the SI derived unit for volume is the ___________.
liter
________ is a ratio that compares the mass of an object to its volume.
density
_________ include all known digits plus one estimated digit.
significant figures
True or False
in an answer that has four significant figures, two are estimated and two are known.
False, one is estimated and three are known
True or False
The liter is the SI base unit for density.
False, the SI base unit for volume
True or False
The prefix deci- indicates a larger number than the prefix centi-
True
The number 1 234 000 in scientific notation is equal to 1.234 x 10^5.
False 1.234 x 10^6
You calculate that 213 000 m/s is the answer to a problem. What can you conclude about your answer.
a. It has six significant figures
b. it has three significant figures
c. it's not possible to know how many significant figures are in an answer without knowing its accepted value
d. it is not possible to know how many significant figures without knowing its percent error
b. it has three significant figures
you caluculate that 215 000g is the answer to a problem. You are asked to write your answer in scientific notation. What can you conclude about your answer?
a. it has six sig figs
b. you should round the 1 up to 2 because it is followed by 5.
c. the answer is too small to be written in scientific notation.
d. it has three sig figs
2.15 x 10^5
d. it has 3 sig figs
you calculate that 319 000 000 m is the answer to a problem. You are asked to write your answer in scientific notation what is it?
3.19 x 10^8
you calculate the following answer to a problem : 12.655 cm. You are asked to round your answer to four significant figures. What is it?
12.66
a homogeneous mixture
solution
states that mass is neither created nor destroyed in a chemical reaction
law of conservation of mass
states that regardless of the amount, a compound is always composed of the same elements in the same proportion by mass
law of definite proportions
states that different masses of one element combine with the same relative mass of another element to form different compounds
law of multiple proportions
the grid organizing elements into periods and groups
periodic table
the ratio of the mass of each element to the total mass of the compound
percent by mass
three physical forms that describe all mater that exists on Earth
states of matter
a separation technique that results in the formation of pure solid particles from a solution
crystallization
a form of matter with a constant volume that takes shape of its container
liquid
a form of matter with a definite shape and volume
solid
what is a chemical property?
a characteristic that only can be observed when the composition of a substance is altered
what is a physical property?
can be observed without changing the substance
what is a substance?
substance is a pure mixture of elements that combine as one
What is a mixture?
a mixture is a combination of substances, where the substances keep their physical and chemical properties
physical or chemical and extensive or intensive

color
physical

intensive
physical or chemical and extensive or intensive

tendency to rust
chemical extensive
physical or chemical and extensive or intensive

boiling point
physical

intensive
physical or chemical and extensive or intensive

density
physical

intensive
physical or chemical and extensive or intensive

mass
physical

extensive
physical or chemical and extensive or intensive

ability to burn
chemical

extensive
physical or chemical and extensive or intensive

malleability
physical

intensive
physical or chemical and extensive or intensive

ability to conduct electricity
physical

intensive
ex: alloy
sterling silver
ex: element
gold
ex:gas
methane
ex: vapor
steam
ex: compound
a. salt
b. air
c. nickel
a.salt
ex: homogeneous mixture
a. silicon
b. air
c. nickel
b. air
ex: element
a. salt
b. brass
c. aluminum
c. aluminum
physical or chemical

breaking a pencil in half
physical
physical or chemical

wood burning
chemical
physical or chemical

silver tarnishing
chemical
physical or chemical

ice melting
physical
physical or chemical

hard-boiling an egg
physical
physical or chemical

grinding coffee beans
physical
physical or chemical

burning gasoline
chemical
homogeneous or heterogeneous

stainless steel
homogeneous
homogeneous or heterogeneous

granite
heterogeneous
homogeneous or heterogeneous

air
homogeneous
homogeneous or heterogeneous
blood
homogeneous
homogeneous or heterogeneous

hand lotion
homogeneous
homogeneous or heterogeneous

oil and water
heterogeneous
homogeneous or heterogeneous

wild bird seed
heterogeneous
homogeneous or heterogeneous

chunky peanut butter
heterogeneous
homogeneous or heterogeneous

dirt
heterogeneous
homogeneous or heterogeneous

vinegar
homogeneous
homogeneous or heterogeneous

gasoline
homogeneous
Identify the technique you would use to separate each mixture

two substances with different boiling points
distillation
Identify the technique you would use to separate each mixture

sand from water
filtration
radiation deflected toward the positively charged plate
beta radiation
atoms with the same number of protons but different numbers of neutrons
isotopes
high-energy radiation that has no charge and no mass
gamma radiation
the smallest particle of an element that retains the properties of the element
atom
the weighted average mass of an element's isotopes
atomic mass
the center most part of an atom where the protons and neutrons are contained
nucleus
radiation deflected toward the negatively charged plate
alpha radiation
the rays and particles emitted by radioactive material
radiation
equal to 1/12 the mass of a carbon-12 atom
atomic mass unit
ray of radiation traveling from the cathode to the anode
cathode ray
process(not requiring energy) by which unstable nuclei lose energy
radioactive decay
states that all matter is composed of atoms
Dalton's atomic theory
process whereby some substances spontaneously emit radiation
radioactivity
What is mass number?
mass number is the sum of protons and neutrons in an atom
what is the atomic number?
the atomic number is the number of protons in an atom
What is as nuclear reaction?
nuclear reaction involves a change in the nucleus of an atom
What is the nuclear equation
the nuclear equation shows the ratio of neutrons to protons
True or False
an atom's nucleus contains its protons and electrons
False, neutrons
True or False
Neutrons have no electrical charge
true
True or False
Beta particles have a charge of 2+
False, alpha
True or False
an alpha particle consists of two protons and two electrons
False, neutrons
cathode ray
A. nucleus
B. electrons
C. neutrons
D. protons
B. electrons
discovered in 1932
A. nucleus
B. electrons
C. neutrons
D. protons
neutrons
caused large deflection of alpha particles in Rutherford's experiments
A. nucleus
B. electrons
C. neutrons
D. protons
c. neutrons
has a charge of 1-
A. nucleus
B. electrons
C. neutrons
D. protons
b. electron
has no charge
A. nucleus
B. electrons
C. neutrons
D. protons
c. neutron
contains nearly all of the atom's mass
A. nucleus
B. electrons
C. neutrons
D. protons
a.nucleus
in an atom, the number of these particles is equal to the number of protons
A. nucleus
B. electrons
C. neutrons
D. protons
b. electrons
identified by Thomson
A. nucleus
B. electrons
C. neutrons
D. protons
B. electrons
site of the atom's positive charge
A. nucleus
B. electrons
C. neutrons
D. protons
a. nucleus
has a positive charge and a relative mass of one
A. nucleus
B. electrons
C. neutrons
D. protons
D. protons
the center of an atom
A. nucleus
B. electrons
C. neutrons
D. protons
a. nucleus
symbolized by n^0
A. nucleus
B. electrons
C. neutrons
D. protons
c. neutrons
How do you express an element in symbolic notation?
atomic mass
symbol
atomic number
positively charged particle found in the nucleus
proton
stable, orbiting particle of an atom with a negative charge
electron
substance that is a mixture of two or more metals
alloy
columns of the periodic table;also known as groups
families
number of protons carried by the nucleus of an atom
atomic number
element with an imbalance in the number of neutrons and protons
isotope
uncharged particles found in the nucleus of an atom
neutron
physical weight of an atom
atomic mass
horizontal rows of elements on the periodic table having consecutive atomic numbers
periods
smallest particle containing all the properties of a particular element
atom
substance that cannot be separated into different substances except by nuclear disintegration
element
five nonmetal chemical elements that are so active they do not occur in an uncombined state in nature
halogens
elements containing both properties of metals and nonmetals
metalloid
stable isotope of hydrogen and an essential part of the hydrogen bomb
deuterium
highly inactive gases that are usually found in isolation in nature
noble gases
sodium, lithium and potassium are some examples of these
alkaline metals
process whereby zinc is used to coat steel in an effort to prevent corrosion
galvanization
elements which start in period 4 and have electron configurations unlike any elements in the first 3 periods
transition metals
element that is a liquid in its natural state
mercury
hard, heavy metallic chemical element that has a high melting point and is often used as a light filament
tungsten
metals that are resistant to corrosion and are excellent conductors of electricity
coinage metals
silvery-white metal that all living creatures need in their bodies
iron
True or False
in an electrically neutral atom, the number of electrons and neutrons is equal
False, protons
True or False
Each vertical column of the periodic table is referred to as a period
False, group/family
True or False
A highly active element has the ability to form bonds easily with other atoms
True
True or False
Many properties of an element are determined by the configuration of protons in the element's atoms.
False, electrons
True or False
Elements that are just one or two electrons short of an octet tend to be very reactive
True
True or False
All metals have the ability to conduct heat and electricity
True
True or False
Alkaline metals are never found in nature outside of compounds
True
True or False
Sodium, lithium and potassium are always found in a metallic state in nature
False, combined in a compound
True or False
Tungsten has a low melting point and is very lightweight
False, High
True or False
Members of the halogen group often occur in an uncombined state in nature
False, combined with group 1
Which element on the table does not belong in a group with any others?
Hydrogen
the main element in this group combines with almost all of the other elements and is critical to life on Earth
Oxygen family
this group contains the least reactive of all elements
noble gases
this group contains some of the hardest metals known to man, including tungsten and chromium.
transition metals
highly resistant corrosion, the members of this group include copper, silver and gold
coinage metals
phosphorus is a member of this group, whose main element comprises 80% of the Earth's atmosphere
Nitrogen
Sodium and potassium are members of this group, the most reactive of all groups on the periodic table
Alkaline metals
members of this group, including, chlorine and iodine, do not occur in an uncombined state in nature
halogens
Magnesium and calcium are members of this highly reactive group
Alkaline Earth Metals
the short periods contain some of the most common elements found in ________.
Earth's crust, oceans, and atmosphere
Alkaline metals are ______ found outside of compounds.
never
Magnesium and calcium are examples of
alkaline earth metals
group 12 elements are:
highly corrosion resistant
chromium, one of the hardest metals known, is a:
transition metal
the lanthanide series of elements is composed of :
the rarest earth elements
What does the atomic number tell us?
number of protons
What does the mass number tell us?
protons + neutrons
What is an atomic mass unit?
1/12 of mass of carbon atom
what is the ratio of the mass of proton to the mass of a neutron?
1:1
True or False
Chemical elements with similar chemical properties are referred to as a Period.
False, group/family
True or False
atoms are composed of electrons and protons
False, protons,electrons and neutrons
True or False
Mendeleev organized the known elements into a table based on atomic mass.
True
True or False
Argon is a highly reactive gas
False
True or False
the rate of a chemical reaction is not affected by the addition of energy
False
True or False
A chemical reaction is always affected by the emission of light, heat and bubbles
True
True or False
In the alkali metals group chemical reactivity increases as you go down the group
False
True or False
sodium metal is kept in oil for safe storage, but reacts violently with water
True
True or False
Chemical formulas are symbolic description of the type of atoms contained in a substance
True
True or False
Silicon belongs to the class of elements called metalloids
True
the atomic number of an element is also equal to its number of
protons/electrons
a proton weighs ____ atomic mass unit
1
the majority of the elements on the Periodic Table are:
metals
How many periods are there in the Modern Periodic Table
7 periods
How many groups are there in the Modern Periodic Table?
18 groups
how many elements are in the Periodic Table?
103
atomic ____ refers to the arrangement and number of smaller particles of an atom
structure
the _______ is the center of the atom
nucleus
the atomic number is the number of ________ in an atom
protons
________ are atoms of the same element with different number of neutrons
isotopes
Elements on the periodic table are represented by chemical _________.
symbols
Elements to the far left in the Periodic Table are very ________.
reactive
True or False
electrons are larger than protons and neutrons
False
True or False
The position of elements on the Periodic Table is dictated by the number of protons
True
plastics
organic chemistry
reaction mechanisms
physical chemistry
metabolism
the study of matter and processes of living things
biochemistry
quality control
the study of the components and composition of substances
Analytical chemistry
minerals

the study of matter that does not contain organic chemicals
inorganic chemistry
the study of carbon- containing chemicals
organic chemistry
the study of the behavior and changes of matter and the related energy changes
physical chemistry
if two measurements are very close to each other, than they are ________.
precise
Zeros that act as _____ are not significant
placeholders
the statement, "Mass can neither be created nor destroyed" is the ________
law of conservation of mass
How can you tell when a reaction is balanced?
mass of the reactants = mass of products