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16 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
discuss wavefunctions for non-hydrogen atoms?

-same qn as H

-same angular functions as H

-same radial functions as H (but contracted)

-E depends on Zeff and l rather than just nuclear charge

Trends in Zeff?

increase across period due to increased nuclear charge while additional electrons in the same shell don't fully shield

equation for orbital energies?

E = -Zeff² * Rh / n²

where Rh = Rydberg constant

Discuss orbital energies?

-depend on n and l quantum numbers due to shielding and penetration (4s ≠ 4p ≠ 4d ≠4f)

- orbital energies can cross ( 4s and 3d near Ca/Sc)

- order only holds for neutral atoms

Slater's Rules?

e⁻ with higher n contribute 0

e⁻ with the same n contribute 0.35 (0.3 for 1s)

e⁻ with n-1 contribute 0.85

e⁻ with >n-1 contribute 1.00

Discuss ionization energy trends?

increase across a period(increasing Zeff)

decrease down a group (increasing radius roughly constant Zeff)

Irregularity in ionization trends?

Be -> B,

- B e⁻ comes from p which is higher in energy than B

N -> O

- taking e⁻ from N, pairing energy 3 -> 1

- taking e⁻ from O, pairing energy 3 -> 3

Ga> A: Tl> In

-relativistic effects

Why does electronegativity occur?
orbitals associated with the more electronegative atom are closer to that atom because they are lower in energy than the orbitals associated with the other atom
Trends in electronegativity?

increase across period because Zeff increases and size of the orbitals decreases.

irregularly decrease down group.

Trends in covalent radius?
increase down, decrease across
different packing types for metals in order of increasing efficiency ?

primitive cubic (52%)

body centered cubic (68%)

hexagonally close packed hcp (74%)

cubic close packed ccp of fcc (74%)

discuss primitive cubic?

CN = 6

-low efficiency

contact along cell edge

discuss body centered cubic packing

CN = 8

contact along body diagonal

Discuss hexagonal close packing?


CN = 12

Discuss cubic close packing?


CN = 12

Discuss trends in homonuclear bond strengths?

decrease down

increase across

(N,O,F have weaker single bonds due to lone pair repulsion or π* more anti bonding than π is bonding