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50 Cards in this Set

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What is the first priority of a HM in a chemical attack?
To ensure your own survival so that you may then treat casualties
What can be used to effectively remove a chemical agent on the skin?
The M291 skin decontamination kit
What directive contains detailed instructions on the use of skin decontamination kits?
NAVMEDP-5041 (Treatment of Chemical Agent Casualties and Conventional Military Chemical Injuries)
What are the 2 types of antidote autoinjectors if you become a nerve-agent casualty?
Atropine and 2-PAM-C1
What is the guiding principle in personnel decontamination?
Avoid spreading contamination to clean areas and manage casualties without aggravating other injuries.
What are the top priorities for first aid and decontaming casualties?
First, control of massive hemmorhage and then first aid for life-threatening shock and wounds
How are medical decontamination supplies given to ships?
On a personnel-strength basis, as listed in the current Authorized Medical Allowance List (AMAL)
What are the minimum number of decontamination stations, or "dirty" areas that each ship must have insofar as the hull design permits?
2
Where is contaminated chemical clothing and gear placed?
In designated dump areas and, whenever practically possible, in metal cans with tightly fitting covers
Who has custody of the keys to the locked decontamination supply cabinets?
The Damage Control Assistant (DCA)
Generally what are the differences between chemical and biological weapons?
Chemical weapons are more suited for tactical, short-term local use, while biological weapons have a strategic, long range goal
What agents are included in casualty-producing chemical agents?
Nerve, blister, blood and choking agents
What agents are included in harassing chemical agents?
Tear gas and vomiting agents
When are chemical agents classified as lethal?
When they result in a 10% or greater death rate among casualties
How do nerve agents produce their effect?
By interferring with normal transmission of nerve impulses in the parasympethetic autonomic nervous system
What is an apparent sign if a nerve agent was a vapor exposure?
The pupils will constrict, usually to a pin point
What is an apparent sign if a nerve agent was exposed through the skin?
There will be a local muscular twitching where the agent was absorbed
What is the specific therapy for nerve agent casualties?
Atropine and acetycholine blocker
WHEN EXPOSED, what is issued to each member of the Navy and Marine Corps?
THREE 2mg autoinjectors of atropine and THREE 600mg auntoinjectors of 2-PAM C1.
Is it permissable to give nerve agent antidotes for preventive purposes BEFORE contemplated exposure to a nerve agent?
No, they are given when EXPOSED.
When you experience the MILD symptoms of nerve-agent poisoning, where do you administer ONE SET of atropine and 2-PAM C1 injections (after putting on your protective mask)?
In your lateral thigh or buttocks.
How long should the atropine injector be firmly held in place for a nerve-agent injection?
At least 10 seconds.
What should you do with the USED nerve agent antidote injectors?
Attach them to your clothing to indicate the number of injections you have already recieved.
Why should the HM NOT use their own autoinjectors when treating a member suffering from severe signs of nerve-agent poisoning?
Because if you do, you may not have any antidote available when needed for self-aid. Therefore, always use the casualties own autoinjectors when providing aid.
Why are mustard (HD) blister agents particularly insidious?
Because they don't manifest their symptoms for several hours after exposre.
What part of the body is the most vulnerable to mustard gas?
The eyes
What is the first symptom of lewisite?
The vapors are so irritating that conscious persons are immediately warned by discomfort to put on a mask
What are the 2 suggested antidotes in treating cyanides?
Amyl nitrite in crush ampules is provided as first aid. Follow up therapy with IV Sodium Thiosulfate Solution is required.
What are the 2 suggested antidotes in treating cyanides?
Amyl nitrite in crush ampules is provided as first aid. F/U therapy with IV Soduim thiosulfate solution is required.
What is the key to successful cyanide therapy?
Speed, as cyanide acts rapidly on an essential enzyme system.
What is phosgene?
A colorless gas with a distintive odor similar to that of a new-mown hay or freshly cut grass.
What is the principal requirement for first aid of psychological agents?
To prevent victims from injuring themselves or others furing the toxic psyhosis
What is the treatment for choking or lung agents?
Once symptoms appear, complete bed rest is mandatory and treatment has to be symptomatic
What are the 2 types of riot-control/harassment agents?
Lacrimators and vomiting agents
What is an important point to remember when considering first aid for lacrimators (tear gas) ?
That although first aid is generally not necessary, this material adheres tenacioudly to clothing, and a change of clothing may be necessary
What first aid is given for vomiting agents?
Washing the skin and rinsing the eyes and mouth with water with a mild analgesic to relieve any headache
What is the first aid for white phosphorus (WP) smoke?
No treatment is necessary, and spontaneous recovery is rapid once the patient is removed fromo the WP source
What first aid is rendered when burning particles of white phosphorus (WP) are embedded in the skin?
They must be covered with water, a wet cloth, or mud until they are removed surgically.
What is the major difference between biological agents and most war gases or vapors?
They cannot be detected by the physical senses or by chemical detectors
What are the best lines of defense against biological agents?
The natural resistance of the body and its maintenance in the best possible physical condition
What is considered as the greatest potential hazard in biolgical warfare?
Inhalation of airborne organisms
What is the best group protection in biological as well as chemical and radiological warfare?
A tightly constructed shelter that is pressurized
What disposition is made of all exposed or unpackaged foods not in critical supply in the event of a known or suspected biological attack?
Should be destroyed
What is chlorination by far the almost universal method of purifying water?
Because it destroys most of the bioligcal agents
Generally, what offers the best protection before a nuclear explosion ashore if there are no specially constructed shelters?
In the basement near walls.
What is the normal duration of flash blindness (from a person looking in the general direction of a nuclear detonation)?
From 20-30 minutes
Who will be burn casualties in a nuclear explosion?
Only those in the direct line of sight of thermal emission
What course of action must be taken immediately, in the event of a suprise nuclear attack, no matter where you are?
Drop to the prone position in a doorway or against a wall
What are the 3 broad classes of injuries to personnel resulting from a nuclear explosion?
Blast and shock injuries,burns, and ionizing radiation effects
What are primary blast injuries?
Those that result fromo the direct action of the air shock wave on the human body