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40 Cards in this Set

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Glucose

Aldohexose

Fructose

Ketohexose

Galactose

Aldohexose

Ribose

Aldopentose

Ribose

Aldopentos

Maltose

A(1-4) glucose & glucose

Lactose

B(1-4) B-d-Galactose & D-glucose

Sucrose

(A1-B2) Glucose & fructose

Glycogen

Animal


Amylopectin

Cellulose

B(1-4)


Plants

Starch

Plants


20% amylose


80% amylopectin

Hydrohalogenation


adding h-x



Hydrogenation

adding H2


Pt,Pd,Ni and heat or pressure

hydration

adding water, ----h2



Hydroxyl

Alcohol


Roh

Carbonyl

Aldehyde---RCHO


Ketone---RCOR



Carboxyl

Carboxylic acid


RCOOH

Halogenation

adding x2

Esterfication

Carboxylic acid+alcohol = Ester & water

Acid Chloride

Carboxylic acid + PCl5 or SOCl2

1st step of glycolysis

Glucose+ATP ---> Glucose-6-phosphate + ADP


Enzyme= Hexokinase

Products from Glycolysis

2 Pyruvate, 2 ATP, 2 NADH, 2 h20, 2 h+

Acytyl coA bond

Thioester

RNA

Single stranded


Sugar phosphate backbone--ribo

Components of a Nucleotide

1. Nitrogen containing heterocyclic base


2. Five carbon sugar ring


3. Phosphoryl PPPPPPPP

Fatty Acids

Contains 12-24 carbon atoms


Even numbers..generally found in nature





Saturated

single bonds

unsatuated

double bond or triple

prostaglandin

promotes inflammation

HDL

transport C from peripheral tissues to the liver

LDL

Carry C to pheripheral tissues & help regulate cholesterol in those tissues

Myoglobin

O2 storage protein of skeletal muscle

Hemoglobin

O2 transport

Primary structure bonds

Covalent between amino acids (peptide)

Secondary structure

Hydrogen bonding


A-helix and B pleated sheat



tertiary & quaternary Structure

Hydrogen bonds between polar r groups


Ionic bonds (salt bridges)


Covalent bonds--Disulfide bonds


Vander wal forces--Dipole-Dipole

Transcription

process of a single stranded DNA serves as a template for synthesis of mRNA

Translation

Converts the info from 1 language of nitrogenous bases to another of amino acids


(trna makes a protein)

Where are fatty acids degraded

matrix of the mitochandria

where are the amino acids degraded

liver, Matrix of the mitochondria