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168 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Anything that occupies space and has mass.
States of Matter
Solid Liquid Gas
Solid Matter has _____ KE and ______ compressibility
low / low
Liquid Matter has _____ KE and _____ compressibility
medium / low
Gas Matter has _____ KE and ____ compressibility
high / high
composed of only one type of atom; cannot be separated into simpler substances by chemical means
composed of atoms of two or more elements; NOT a mixture of different elements
Name 2 key properties of compounds
DISTINCT properties
DEFINITE composition
What is the difference between a mixture and a pure substance?
Mixtures can be separated by physical methods into pure substances
What is the difference between mixtures and compounds?
Mixtures are pure substances in varying ratios. Compounds are atoms of 2 or more elements with DISTINCT properties and DEFINITE composition
What is the difference between elements and compounds?
Elements are pure substances, compounds are 2 or more elements joined together
Homogeneous Mixture
The same throughout
Heterogeneous Mixture
Not the same throughout, cookies or vegetable soup
What method is used to separate a compound?
What method is used to separate a Mixture?
Physical Property
A characteristic that can be observed or measured without changing the identity of the substance (Length, odor, color, size, density, MP, BP)
Chemical Property
Describes the ability of a substance to undergo changes that alter its identity
(The ability of coal to burn and iron to rust)
Density =
Volume =
Mass =
Volume x Density
Three units of measure for temperature
C, F, K
Formula for converting Celsius to Kelvin
Tk= 273.15 + Tc
Formula for Converting Celsius to Farenheit
Tf= 32.0 + (9/5)Tc
Extensive property
External property, depends on how much matter present
Intensive Property
Internal property, independant of amount of matter
Physical Change
When a substance changes physical condition but does not involve a change in composition
Chemical Change
When a substance changes into another substance or group of substances
SI Units
Metric System, based on powers of 10
Common SI unit for Mass
Common SI unit for Length
Common SI unit for Volume
one thousand 10^3
(move decimal 3 to the right)
one hundredTH 10^-2
(Move decimal 2 to the left)
one thousandTH 10^-3
(move decimal 3 to the left)
tenth 10^-1
(move decimal 1 to the left)
Conversion Factor
Express the equivalence of measurement in two different units. It is always written as a fractrion, usually new/old
Whether the measurement is correct, how close the result is to the accepted value
How much uncertainty is associated wiht the measurement, how closely different measurements of the same object agree with one another
Significant Figures
Meaningful digits in a measured or calculated quantity: Certain Digits plus One Uncertain (rounded) digit
Rules for adding and subtracting sig figs
Answer cannot have more places after the decimal point than either of the original figures.
Rules for dividing/multiplying sig figs
Answer cannot have more total sig figs than either of the original figures
Order of operations for Sig Figs
Track the significant figures using the appropriate rule for each step, but don't round off till the end.
Scientific Notation
N x 10^n
4 Points of Daltons Atomic Theory
-An element is made up of atoms. All atoms are identical
-Atoms cannot be destroyed or created
-All atoms of one element have the same size, mass, and property. Atoms of two different elements have different sizes, masses, and properties
-Atoms of different elements may combine in simple, whole-number ratios to form compounds
2 points of Dalton's Atomic Theory were disproved. What discoveries disproved them?
Isotopes- Atoms of the same element are NOT identical

Subatomic Particles: atoms are NOT indivisible
2 points of Dalton's Atomic Theory are now Laws. What are they called?
Law of Conservation of Matter

Law of Constant composition
Three Subatomic Particles and their symbol/charge
Proton p+ +1
Neutron n 0
Electron e- -1
Atoms are mostly _____
empty space
The nucleus is made up of _____
protons and neutrons
______ are found outside of the nucleus of the atom
______ makes up most of the mass of an atom
The nucleus
Atomic number =
(Z) Number of protons
Mass Number =
(A) number of protons + number of neutrons
Atomic Mass Unit
(amu) 1 amu = 1/12 of the mass of an atom of C with 6 protons and 6 neutrons. Such a C atom has a mass of 12amu
Conversion Factor for amu to g
1 amu = 1.661 x 10^(-24)g
Mass of a Proton
1.672623 x 10^(-24)g
1.007 amu
Mass of a Neutron
1.674286 x 10^(-24)g
1.009 amu
Mass of an Electron
0.109389 x 10^(-26)g
Rutherford Experiment
A narrow beam of positively charged (alpha) (+2) particles was directed at a very thin gold foil. Most particles past through, Few were deflected at moderate angles, and very few were deflected at acute angles. Some positive particles were deflected by coming to close to a + charged nucleus, some collided with a nucleus and were repelled backward
atoms with the same atomic number (Z) but different mass number (A). atoms of the same elements that differ in the number of neutrons
%Abundance of Isotopes =
(#number of atoms of a given isotope)
total # of atoms of all isotopes of that element

all times 100%
Average atomic mass =
sum (abund. N x mass N)
Periodic Table
A visual summary of all the elements and some of their similarities to each other.
2 specific ways the periodic table is organized:
Increasing Atomic Number
Similar Chemical/Physical properties
Groups or Families
vertical columns numbered 1 to 8 with each number followed by A or B, elements in the same GROUP have similar chem/phys properties
A Groups
Main Elements
B Groups
Transition Elements
Horizontal rows numbered 1-7
properties of Metals
-lustrous appearance
-electric and thermal conductors
-tend to form (+) ions in ionic compounds
Properties of Non-Metals
-dull appearance
-wide diversity in physical states with solids being brittle or soft
-poor electrical and thermal conductors
-tend to form (-) ions in ionic compounds
Periodic table can be easily separated into these 3 sections
Metals, Non-Metals, Metalloids
Group 1A
Alkali Metals (not H). React strongly with water to produce hydrogen gas and alkaline solutions. Only found as parts of compounds, never as free elements
Group 2A
Alkaline Earth Metals: Elements (Except Be) and their oxides react with water to form alkaline solutions
Group 7A
Halogens: Non-metals that are extremely reactive with alkali metals to form salts. Reactive elements that generally exist in their elemental form as diatomic molecules
Group 8A
Noble Gases: Least reactive elements, very low abundance on earth.
Group B
Transition elements/ transition metals: Contain some of the most useful and abundant elements.
Actinides and Lanthanides
Groub B metals, contain well-known radioactive elements such as U, Pu
A combination of 2 or more elements in definite ratios by mass
The smalles unit of a molecular compound that retains the characteristics of the compound
Chemical formulas
Symbols used to describe the composition of compounds
A subscript in a chemical formula represents:
The number atoms for that element: H2O = 2 hydrogen and 1 oxygen
7 Diatomic Elements and their Formulas
H2, N2, O2, F2, Cl2, Br2, I2
atoms (monatomic) or groups of atoms (polyatomic) with a positive or negative charge; ions are the smalles formula units to describe ionic compounds
positively charged ion. Metals generally lose electrons during a reaction to form cations.
negatively charged ion. Nonmetals frequently gain electrions to form anions
Rules for determining charges on ions
Main group metals: (+) charge number = group number (1,2,3)
Main group nonmetals: (-) charge number = group number -8
Transition elements generally have +2 or +3 charges
Polyatomic Ions
Groups of ions that bear a net charge
Ionic compounds
Cations + Anions
Formula for writing ionic coumpounds
Cation Anion
All ionic compounds must have a net ______ charge
Coulomb's Law
The oppositely charged ions are attracted to each other by electrostatic forces
Rules for electrostatic attraction
As charge increases and size decreases, attraction increases.
The two types of compounds
Molecular and Ionic
Molecular compounds can only be made up of:
nonmetals and metaloids
Ionic compounds are made up of
Metals and nonmetals
Binary Molecular compounds are made up of
TWO types of non-metals
Rules for naming a binary molecular compound:
(prefix)1st element +
(prefix)2nd elementIDE
Rules for naming Cations with one possible charge
name + ion
Rules for naming cations with multiple possible charges
name (roman numeral) ion
Ammonium Ion
Rules for Naming Monatomic Anions
rootname + ide
Rules for Naming Ionic Compounds
-Cation + AnionIDE (Same rules for each monatomic ion)
-Charges must balance
Polyatomic anions containing oxygen
Rules for Naming Oxoanions with 1 possible charge
-Groups IIIA and IV A
Rules for naming Oxoanions with 2 possible charges
more oxygen -ate
less oxygen -ite
Groups V A and VI A
Rules for naming Oxoanions with 4 possible charges
1- hypo____ite
2- ____ite
3- ____ate
4- per_____ate
Group VII A
ionic compoun that carries a definite number of water molecules along in the crystal structure
The water in a hydrate is called
Water of Hydration
How to determine the chemical formula of a hydrate
Heat the sample and measure the weight loss, which is the weight of water in the hydrate
Formula for a hydrate
formula for an anhydrous compound + (DOT) + number of water molecules in the hydrate
a molecular compound that dissociates in water to give a hydrogen ion H+ and an anion
Monoprotic Acid
one acid molecule only releases one proton H+
Polyprotic Acid
one acid molecule can release more than one proton H+
Rules for naming acid are based on
the prefixes and suffixes of the anion
If the prefix/suffix of the anion was -ide, the acid will be named
hydro_____ic acid
If the prefix/suffix of the anion was per____ate, the acid will be named
per_____ic acid
If the prefix/suffix of the anion was -ate, the acid will be named
_______ic acid
If the prefix/suffix of the anion was -ite, the acid will be named
____ous acid
If the prefix/suffix of the acid was hypo____ite, the acid will be named
hypo____ous acid
Is HCl hydrochloric acid or hydrogen chloride?
Depends on if it is gas (g) or an aqueous solution (aq)
HCl (g) hydrogen chloride
HCl (aq) hydrochloric acid
Acetic Acid
Acetate Ion
HI (g)
hydrogen iodide
HI (aq)
hydroiodic acid
hydrocyanic acid
cyanide ion
Ammonium ion
Hydroxide ion (gives the property of a base)
Bicarbonate (or hydrogen carbonate) ion
Cromate ion
dicromate ion
Permanganate ion
How do we connect the macroscopic world we're dealing with to the particulate world of atoms and molecules?
Mole and Molar Mass
SI Unit for amount of substance
(the # of C-12 atmons in exactly 12g of C-12 = 12amu)
1 mol of any substance =
6.022 x 10^(23) units
Avagadro's Number
6.0221415 x 10^(23)
Molar Mass
the mass in grams of 1 mole of a substance
the mass in grams of 6.02 x 10^(23) particles of that substance
Molar Mass =
Mass g
_____ = _______

Mole mol
Atomic Weight reported in the Periodic Table can be used in what two units?
-Atomic Mass Unit: Mass of one atom (amu/atom)

-Molar Mass: Mass of one mole of atoms (g/mol)
What is the formula to convert Moles to Mass?
Moles x ---------=grams
What is the formula to convert mass to moles?
1 mol
grams x ---------- = moles

where grams = 1 / molar mass
Molecular Weight (in amu)
the sum of the atomic weights of all atoms in one molecule;
molar mass of a compound - molecular weight in grams
carbonate ion
nitrite ion
phosphate ion
hydrogen phosphate ion
dihydrogen phosphate
hydroxide ion
sulfite ion
hydrogen sulfate ion
(or bisulfate ion)
hypochlorite ion
chlorite ion
chlorate ion
perchlorate ion
chromate ion
dichromate ion
Name the Ions with more than one possible charge
Chromium, manganese, iron, cobalt, copper, mercury, tin, lead
hydrogen phosphate
percent composition
expressed as the percent (by mass) of each element in a compound