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305 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back

Describe the pathway of information from light entering the eye to the signal reaching the brain.

Light -> Cornea -> pupil > lens > retina > rods deactivate bipolar cells > activate retinal gangial cells > activate optic nerve > brain

PE Spring equation?

Mechanism of Sound?

Critical point - when liquid and gas have the same densities 

Triple point - where all 3 phases are in eq with each other 

Critical point - when liquid and gas have the same densities

Triple point - where all 3 phases are in eq with each other

Blood flow from the heart?

Blood composition?

1. Plasma takes the most vol
2. erythrocytes
3. platelets & leukocytes 

1. Plasma takes the most vol

2. erythrocytes

3. platelets & leukocytes

Atrial or ventricle which has more/less pressure?

Kohlberg's moral development Stages?

Inductive vs. Deductive reasoning?

Type of Bias: Availability heuristic

Over valuing information that is relatively available.

Ex) news report about massive murder, applying this rare event that the whole neighborhood is dangerous and full of murders.

Type of Bias: Misattribution of arousal

Attributing arousal to the wrong cause.

Ex) given an adrenaline shot and being misinformed about the side-effects. So saying you’re depressed because of this misinformation.

Type of Bias: Fundamental attribution error

A person’s individual actions come from their personality.

Ex) A person is driving too fast on the freeway, therefore the person is wrongly attributed as a reckless or careless person

Type of Bias: Egocentric Bias

Overstress past/present to make oneself appear more worthy than one actually is

Type of Bias: Framing Bias

How the media, etc. influences perception by words/phrases

What are the universal emotions?

What moves (and stays stationary) during a   contraction?

What moves (and stays stationary) during a contraction?

Moves: I band & Z line moves closer to the M line. 

Stationary: A band and M line 

Moves: I band & Z line moves closer to the M line.

Stationary: A band and M line

Osteoblast vs. Osteoclast:

and Ca2+ levels associated with them?

Give an example of each:

Fixed interval

Variable Interval

Fixed ratio

Variable ratio

Fixed interval min wage = working one hour will recieve X dollars

Variable interval fishermen in the same location will get on avergae the same amount of fish but do not know when they will catch it

Fixed ratio fruit pickers, based on the pounds of fruit picked they will recieve X amount of dollars Variable Ratio Gambaling

Stroop Effect?

why individuals find it difficult to read words in a different color

why individuals find it difficult to read words in a different color

positive control vs. 
negative control?

positive control vs.

negative control?

Independent variable vs. dependent variable?

Piaget's stages?

Equivalence point in a titration?

Equivalence point is the point where you’ve neutralized all the acid (or base) in your flask.

Equivalence point is the point where you’ve neutralized all the acid (or base) in your flask.

How do you find pKa in a titration curve?

This point is “halfway” between the beginning of the curve and the equivalence point in a monoprotic acid, and for a polyprotic acid each intermediate pKa can be found halfway between the equivalence points.

This point is “halfway” between the beginning of the curve and the equivalence point in a monoprotic acid, and for a polyprotic acid each intermediate pKa can be found halfway between the equivalence points.

What is the relationship between pKa and H+ ?

Stimulus Generalization?

Little Albert feared all things white

Simulus discrimination?

Stimulus Sensitization?

pKa of the following:

- NH2

- histidine

- acidic amino acids

- COOH terminal end

When do these important steps occur and what exactly happens that makes them so special?

- Crossing Over

- Independent assortment

- Nondisjunction

What is the cell membrane composed of?

Where is sperm produced and by what cells?

but stored in the vas deferens

What helps the egg form?

What hormone is at high concentration during ovulation?

Where is testosterone produced, by what cell, and what hormone causes these cells to produce testosterone?

What age(s) do these stages occur?

What age(s) do these stages occur?

5 general stages of embryonic development?

How many polar bodies does oogenesis have?


Scientific Notation Rules:

Common Ion Effect causes what?

We can control what 2 things?

WOULD HAVE AN effect in EQ because common ion, would make more solid.

Types of evolution 

Types of evolution


Filtrate vs. Secretion?

Hypotonic increases or decreases osmolarity?


ADH and its mechanism to increase blood


Function of SA node, AV node, and Purkinje fibers?

What are the 3 
functional groups in this IR ?

What are the 3

functional groups in this IR ?

laminar velocity and its relation to poiseuille flow/viscosity

At higher elevation what changes in terms of:

- oxygen levels

- blood cells

- atmospheric pressure

- Less oxygen in the air

- Body makes more blood cells to compensate

- No change in atm with change in height

PCR Primers?


Want a primer that is the same was the coding (sense strand) therefore should have T

Should be the exact sequence we are given

Function of DNA polymerase?

- DNA Replication 

 - Responsible for the elongation of the leading and lagging strand

- Reads lagging/parental in the 3’ → 5’, adding nucleotides to the growing strand in the 5’→ 3’ (antiparallel) direction

- DNA Replication

- Responsible for the elongation of the leading and lagging strand

- Reads lagging/parental in the 3’ → 5’, adding nucleotides to the growing strand in the 5’→ 3’ (antiparallel) direction

What is a possible result of an alternate

promoter region?

When proteins are from the same gene, but have a different function they are considered products of alternate promoter (Ts start sites)

Kd and its relationship to affinity

- inversely proportional

- the lower the kd the higher affinity, more efficient it will bind.

- kd = K (off) / k (on)

Identify where these proof mechanisms occur and define them:

- Photoreactivation

- Base excision repair

- Homologous recombination


- prokaryotic process (still used in some eukaryotes) to reverse damage done by UV light;

- humans use a separate process.

Base excision repair is seen in both prokaryotes and eukaryotes.

Homologous recombination is only seen in eukaryotes, which possess chromosomes.

- repairing double strand breaks

Functions of macrophages?

A type of WBC, play a role in nonspecific 

A type of WBC, play a role in nonspecific


Type 2 diabetes and its relationship with insulin?

Type 2 diabetes is characterized by

hyperglycemia due to insulin resistance

the cells do not take in insulin, so the body keeps making sugar which makes the blood hyperglycemic. So for treatment we want glucose receptors to take insulin inside the cells to lower blood sugar

Leptin vs. Ghrelin?

Leptin = inhibits hunger

- Obesity results as a decreased sensitivity to


Gherkin = hunger hormone stimulator

amphipathic vs. amphoteric?

- amphipathic = np(h2O phillic) & polar (h2O phobic)

- amphoteric= able to act as an acid or a base

Fat soluble and Water soluble vitamins?

- Fat soluble: A D E K

(dissolved in fat and stored in the body)

- Water (Nonfat) soluble: B & C

How many electron(s) can the electron carriers hold in the ETC?

2 electrons max

Name the 5 ETC e- carriers

1. NADH-Q reductase

2. Ubiquinone

3. Cytochrome reductase

4. Cytochrome c

5. Cytochrome oxidase

Trisomy 21 AKA?

Down's syndrome, viable fetus

while Trisomy 14 is incompatible with life.

noncompetitive inhibitor affects the Km and Vmax by?

Km is unchanged

Vmax is decreased

uncompetitive inhibitor affects the Km and Vmax by?

When are they most effective?

When [substrate] is the highest because requires it to bind first prior to being able to inhibit

Km is decreased

Vmax is decreased

Line weaver burke:

- slope

- x inter

- y inter

slope = km/vmax

x inter = 1/km

y inter = v max

Phenomenological research study

Focuses on experience of subjects by collecting their perceptions, perspectives and understanding of a particular situation or event.

This is often done by collecting narratives from multiple subjects regarding the same situation or experience, in order to make generalizations about the research topic.

Meta Analysis

Quantitative study data from several selected studies to develop a single conclusion that has greater statistical power.

This conclusion is statistically stronger b/c an increased numbers of subjects, greater diversity among subjects, or accumulated effects and results.

Looking-glass self

An individual shaping his or her self-concept based on an understanding of how others perceive them.


is a symptom of depression and means “inability to feel pleasure.”


is the inability to speak.


is the lack of motivation or desire to engage in social activity.


is a lack of interest in goal-directed behavior.

social proof

AKA: Informational social influence

A psychological phenomenon where people assume the actions of others in an attempt to reflect correct behavior for a given situation

trust the opinions of experts

Stanley Milgram’s electric shock study was

interested in studying?

He examined factors related to obedience to authority and identification with obedient roles.

Soloman Asch’s conformity experiments

interested in studying?

Looked at how and why people adopt majority group decisions

The elaboration likelihood model

Theory that describes the ways in which

persuasive information may be processed.

- Central route result from a person's careful consideration of the merits of persuasive information.

- Peripheral route results from a person's association with positive or negative cues such as the attractiveness of the message source and its related presentation.

Neuronal location will selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors have the greatest effect?

SSRIs inhibit the reuptake mechanism of serotonin from the synaptic cleft.

This causes serotonin to remain in the cleft longer in order to facilitate the molecule’s binding to dendritic neurotransmitter receptors.

Overall affect: SSRIs block the reabsorption (reuptake) of serotonin in the brain, making more serotonin available helpful to treat depression and anxiety disorders.

Self-fulfilling prophecy

describes a person behaving in a certain way because they believe that they are supposed to behave that way.

ex) gender stereotypes describe how a person believes they are to behave, and their behavior follows.

The demographic Transition Model

Stage 1: Industrial Revolution, both birth rates and death rates are high. As a result, population size remains fairly constant but can have major swings with events such as wars or pandemics.
Stage 2: the introduction of modern medicine lowers d...

Stage 1: Industrial Revolution, both birth rates and death rates are high. As a result, population size remains fairly constant but can have major swings with events such as wars or pandemics.

Stage 2: the introduction of modern medicine lowers death rates, especially among children, while birth rates remain high; the result is rapid population growth. Many of the least developed countries today are in Stage 2.

Stage 3, birth rates gradually decrease, usually as a result of improved economic conditions, an increase in women’s status, and access to contraception. Population growth continues, but at a lower rate. Most developing countries are in Stage 3.

Stage 4, birth and death rates are both low, stabilizing the population. These countries tend to have stronger economies, higher levels of education, better healthcare, a higher proportion of working women, and a fertility rate hovering around two children per woman. Most developed countries are in Stage 4.

Stage 5 would include countries in which fertility rates have fallen significantly below replacement level (2 children) and the elderly population is greater than the youthful population.

gap junctions

connects cytoplasm for two cells

allows various molecules, ions and electrical impulses to directly pass through a regulated gate between cells.

Mainly found in skin cells b/c need to be able to transfer molecules quickly between themselves


Form links between cells, and provide a connection between intermediate filaments of the cell cytoskeletons of adjacent cells.

Gives strength to tissues.

AKA anchoring junctions

Name the 5 double membrane bound organelles in Euk?

1. Mitochondria

2. Chloroplasts

3. Endoplasmic Reticulum

4. Golgi Body

5. Nucleus.

Major function of the peroxisome?

Catabolism of very long chain fatty acids through beta-oxidation, branched chain fatty acids, D-amino acids, and polyamides

Reduction of reactive oxygen species – specifically hydrogen peroxide

The microtubule-organizing center function?

A structure found in eukaryotic cells from which microtubules emerge.

Two main functions organizing the function of:

1) eukaryotic flagella and cilia

2) mitotic and meiotic spindle apparatus, which separate the chromosomes during cell division.

Epithelial cells

Tissue lining cavities and surfaces of the body

–All glands are made up of epithelial cells.

- Functions of epithelial cells include secretion, selective absorption, protection, transcellular transport, and sensing.

Connective Cells

Tissue that BINDS, PROTECTS, andSUPPORTS other tissues and organs

3 components:

- Cells

- Fibers – adipose tissue and blood

- Ground substance: fix the body water and the collagen fibers in the intercellular spaces, slows the spread of infection

Rank intermolecular forces in increasing order

London dispersion (weakest)

dipole dipole


H bonding (strongest)

Does binding a substrate to its receptor require ATP?


It binds due to a binding-site specificity,

therefore not external energy source is required

compare/contrasts the following:

- RBCs

- Neurons

- WBCs

- Muscle cells

- RBCs do not have any organelles or mitochondria to make the most room for hemoglobin. Gain energy via ANAerobic

- Neurons & muscle cells require high energy, have mitochondrion MUST undergo aerobic

- WBCs have organelles, nucleus

Angiogenesis inhibitors and their affect on


- limits cells size

- tissues/cells grow larger b/c circulatory system effectively increases the Surface Area so increasing nutrients delivered and wastes removed

- as tumor grows, need blood vessels to provide this SA for exchange. Absence of blood supply limits the tumors vol and therefore SA (size)

Muscle Contraction Cycle: Step 1

Calcium ions bind to the troponin, rotating tropomyosin off the active site of the actin. (calcium released) induced by a nerve signal

Muscle Contraction Cycle: Step 2

Crossbridging occurs between the active site on the actin and the myosin head

Muscle Contraction Cycle: Step 3

Myosin head pivots or rachets toward the center of the sarcomere, pulling the z lines closer together causing contraction (ADP and P are released at this point)

-Releases stored energy. Calcium pulled out

Muscle Contraction Cycle: Step 4

Crossbridging detachment, the bond remains intact until the myosin head bind with another ATP molecule. This causes the muscle to


(rigor mortis, there is no ATP production, so the muscle will remained contracted until the enzymes break down)

Muscle Contraction Cycle: Step 5

Myosin activation, the free myosin head splits the ATP into ADP and P which recocks the head again for the next cycle. The cycle stops when calcium levels return to low levels. Muscle relaxation.


- units

- def

- equation

- units: Newton meters

Newton = F = m*a = m * m/s^2 = m^2 / s^2

- tendency to rotate

F torque = F * distance * sin(theta)

work energy theorem equation

Work net = KE final - KE initial

mechanical work

- def

- equation

- example

Can be the result of its motion (kinetic energy) and/or the result of its stored energy of position (potential energy).

- The sum of the potential energy and the kinetic energy.

- ex) cannon Ball

Newton's 3 laws of motion

1. object at rest/motion remains at rest/motion unless a Fnet acts upon that object

2. F = ma

3. every action has an equal and opposite reaction. F a on b = - Fb on a

How to convert Fahrenheit into Celsius?

In the heat curve for water, when does the avg kinetic energy not change?

 - freezing / melting 

-  vaporization / 

- freezing / melting

- vaporization /


Rate Law Kinetics 

Rate Law Kinetics

q: rate law of SN1 vs SN2?

A: SN1 = unimolar k[E+]

SN2 = bimolar k[E+][nuc]

Wavelength of UV region?

10 nm - 40 nm

conformational isomers

- same connectivity

- same MW

- rotation among sigma bonds

When doing an extraction with more than 2 compounds what type of base would you initially use then finally use?

1st want a mild base (ex. NaHCO3) so do not

de-protonate all molecules

last can use a strong base (ex. NaOH) because does not matter will not pronate np molecule

Define distillation

what type of distillation allows for a more pure substance and quicker?

Distillation is the separation technique by

selective vaporization and condensation

fractional distillation

(Not simple)


- higher Rf values mean....

LESS polar b/c attracted to polar silica gel so moves up the plate via capillary action

in size exclusion chromatography what is

eluted first?

large molecules b/c smaller molecules get trapped in beads

Relative configuration


Absolute configuration

Relative configuration compares the arrangement of atoms in space of one compound with those of another.

Absolute configuration is the precise arrangement of atoms in space.

DNA hybridization technique

Measures the degree of genetic similarity between pools of DNA sequences.

Usually used to determine the genetic distance between two organisms. This has been used extensively in phylogeny and taxonomy.

DNA polymerase


RNA polymerase

DNA polymerase - adds new DNA at 3' Carbon, has proofreading ability

RNA polymerase - synthesizes RNA from RNA or DNA (prokaryotes?)

In DNA replication, which strand is continuous and which is non-continuous?

Lagging = non- continuous (Okazaki fragments)

- More steps, more chances for error

Leading = continuous

describe the 3 steps of Transcription:

1. initiation - RNA pol cans noncoding strand (aka template/leading strand) for promoter

2. Elongation - mRNA is complementary template/leading/noncoding

3. Termination - RNA polymerase reaches termination sequence, releases from DNA. mRNA is release and goes to ribosome from tL.

What sequence does translation recognize in

Eukaryotes vs. prokaryotes?

Eukaryotes - G' Cap, Met

Prokaryotes - Shine del Garno seq. f-met

describe the 3 steps of Translation:

1. initiation - start codon at P site (recognizes shine del garno OR G' cap)

2. Elongation - bond btw tRNA and start codon breaks, releasing enough energy to drive peptide bond forward. So AA moves from P to E site, and the ribosome continues to read AA sequence downstream to the right

3. Termination - stop codon enters the A site and mRNA get degraded

Overal TL is EPA but moves from E <-- P <-- A

Small nuclear ribonucleic proteins (snRNP)


Small nuclear ribonucleic acid (snRNA)

(snRNP) - maintain telomere

(snRNA) - guide covalent modification of rRNA, snRNA, etc.

Together - they create a splicosome that remove introns from Ts

Positive control of Lac Operon

a regulatory protein activates transition of the lac gene

Lac Operon (AKA Jacob-Monod Model) breaks down lactose into what?

Lactose --> Glucose + Galactose

How do Bacteria use restriction enzymes?

Since Bacteria DNA is methylated, and a virus is not, the bacteria is able to attack the un-methylated DNA

Therefore, a defense mechanism to protect bacteria's DNA from virus

cDNA is useful in what lab technique and why?

- DNA Library, able to find the entire sequence of a protein

- Technique we go from protein (aa sequence) into DNA

- mRNA --(reverse Ts) --> cDNA (exons only)

Gel Electrophoresis

size separation of DNA

- DNA is naturally negatively charged so flows from cathode (-) to anode (+)

- Smaller DNA migrates further because can pass through pores more easily

Dynamic mutation

An unstable heritable element where the probability of a child has a different likelihood of mutation than its predecessor.

Typically short sequences repeated many times, give rise to numerous known diseases, including the Trinucleotide repeat disorders.

Dominant mode of inheritance

- no generation is skipped

- affected children come from at least 1 affected parent

Incomplete Penetrance


Variable Expressivity

Incomplete Penetrance : clinical symptoms (phenotype) is not expressed although the genetic mutation (genotype) is there

Variable Expressivity : same genotype but the phenotype (severity of symptoms) are very



one gene influences multiple, unrelates phenotypic traits

ex) albinism, sickle cell anemia, and certain forms of autism and schizophrenia.


lowers Ca2+ levels

OsteoBLAST = make new bone

secreted from the thyroid gland

peptide hormone

Specific Gravity

How dense something is vs. H2O


Force / Area

Scalar Quant

as altitude increases there is less air pushing down so less O2

total pressure equation

P ATM + P gauge

Archimedes Principle

F Buoyancy = density of fluid * Vol submerged * g

objects float when density object less density fluid

Pascals Law

F1/A1 = F2/A2

flow rate (equation, def)

vs. fluid speed

f = area * velocity

how much fluid flows per unit of time

use A1V1 = A2V2 when pipe carries lie and the density remains constant then we have a continuity

vs. fluid speed - how fast the fluid moves

what 4 things identify an ideal fluid?

1. incompressible

2. negligible velocity and friction

3. fluid runs linear and smooth

4. flow rate is constant

Venturi effect

The reduction in fluid pressure that results when a fluid flows through a constricted section (or choke) of a pipe.

The reduction in fluid pressure that results when a fluid flows through a constricted section (or choke) of a pipe.

Kinetic molecular theory of a gas:

- molecules of gas have no vol

- molecules are in constant motion (elastic collision) w/ container

- no INTERmolecular forces between molecules

KE avg is proportional to TEMP

in summary macro properties (PVT) are a result of micro properties (position, speed)

Real vs. Ideal Gas in terms of pressure and vol

P real < P ideal

- b/c real gases molecules undergo IMF so less collisions with wall, less pressure

V real > V ideal

- b/c molecules in real situations take up space and therefore would result in more vol

Molecular formula for nitrous oxide?


Molecular formulas vs. empirical formulas

Molecular formulas tell you how many atoms of each element are in a compound

empirical formulas tell you the simplest or most reduced ratio of elements in a compound.

Molecular formulas tell you how many atoms of each element are in a compound

empirical formulas tell you the simplest or most reduced ratio of elements in a compound.

Blood from pulmonary to systemic circulation

pulmonary : R artium, R ventricle, Pulmonary artery, LUNGS

Systemic : pulmonary vein, L atrium, L ventricle, aorta, rest of body

3 major functions of lymphatic system

1. equalize fluid distribution (returns more than 1/2 blood vol to heart)

2. transport proteins and large glycerides

3. protection involved with immune system

organs associated with lymphatic system


adenoids (gland located on roof of mouth)



Pyers patches in small intestine


What cell in the adaptive immunity makes antibodies?

B cells

helper T cells

activate B cells and killer T cells

* note B cells activated by T cells is not a required action

The major histocompatibility complex (MHC)

A set of cell surface proteins essential for the acquired immune system to recognize foreign molecules in vertebrates, which in turn determines histocompatibility.

They mark the cell surface of invaders so T cells can identify them and destroy them

How the body identifies as self from non self

which organs of the digestive system has no exocrine and endocrine roles?

Large intestine


5 functions of the Liver

1. monitors blood glucose levels

2. regulates waste products of protein catabolism (urea)

3. assist in lipid metabolism

4. makes plasma proteins (ex. clotting factors)

5. detoxifies drugs and other toxins via SER

Kidney Structure at macroscopic level

cortex = outer

medulla = inner

gonads vs genitals

gonads = sex organs that create gametes (men testes b/c that where seminiferous tubules are located, female ovaries)

genitals = sex organs that allow sexual intercourse

hormone that causes ovulation?

- LH, anterior pituitary, peptide

- surge in estrogen, ovary, steroid

- FSH, anterior pituitary, peptide

ligament vs tendon

ligament = bone to bone

tendon = bone to muscle

3 layers of cutaneous membrane of skin

1. epidermis - melanin

2. dermis - dense connective tissue w/ collagen and elastin fibers

3. subcutaneous later - loose connective tissue connects skin to skeletal muscle

in analytic techniques the phrase "salt out" means?

pH = PI

What must be in ample abundance for skeletal muscle contraction to begin?

Calcium binds to troponin changes shape of myosin

ATP (need for contraction and relaxing)

Organizing bio life

King Philip Came Over From Great Spain

Kingdom phylum class order family genus species

What side of the heart are the following valves:

- aortic valve

- tricuspid valve

- mitral valve

- pulmonary valve

Cardiac vs skeletal muscle contraction

complement system in terms of immunity

refers to innate immune response

where small proteins, antibodies, and phagocytic cells kill pathogens

What is the net charge of AA in acidic (and basic) solutions?

Acidic = + (protonate the NH2)

Basic = - (de-pronoate the COOH)

Alkalosis and acidosis examples

Alkalosis - not enough CO2 in blood = HCO3 -

- HYPERventilation

- being at high altitudes, because less O2 in air

Acidosis - too much CO2 in blood = H2CO3

- HYPOventilation

- excessive alcohol use

- excessive loss of Na/K

How many carbons are in citrate, and what two molecules from them?

citrate has 6 Carbons

formed by oxaloacetate (4c) + acetylCoA (2c)

before menstruation what are the hormone levels?

What level in meiosis is the egg during menstruation?

estrogen and progesterone?

Metaphase II (all cells are at this level before puberty)


- short segment of DNA that are bound by activators (a protein) to enhance ts of a gene(s)

can be upstream or downstream of ts start site

Function of Bile

- does what to pH?

- digest what type of fats

helps emulsify ingested lipids by disrupting their IMF amount lipids

form micelles , increase SA

increase pH, more alkaline, bicarbonate HCO3-

Beta decay - vs +

Beta neg = converts neutron to proton

Beta positive = e- & portion are converted proton into a neutrons

Mass spectrometer AKA?

means H NMR

Bohr Atom ?

Only contains 1 e-

ex) H, He+, Li 2+

Electron configuration rules: of the following

- Aufbau

- Hund

- Pauli

Aufbau = e-s occupy lowest levels 1st

Hund = e-s occupy single before pairing up

Pauli exclusion = no more than 2 e-s per orbital

diamagnetic vs paramagnetic

diamagnetic = all paired

paramagnetic = some single

isoelectric ?

When an ion has the same e- configuration as another element

period vs group?

period = horizontal rows

group = columns

degree of unsat formula

(2C + 2 + N - X) / 2

x = halogens & hydrogens

O chem: kinetic vs thermodynamic ?

kinetic = fast, less subst side, bulky base (ex LDA), occurs at LOWER T

Thermodynamic = more stable side, more subst. side, small base (ex NaH) occurs at HIGHER T

molecular vs electronic geometry

molecular geo = ignore loan pairs just focus on the molecular bonds

electronic geo = pay attention to the e-s (loan pairs) & bonds

Why does sound travel faster in SOILDS than liquids or gases?

sound relies on collision of adjacent molecules in the medium it travels in.

Therefore, the closer together the molecules the faster the wave travels

Speed solids > liquids > gases

open on 1 end vs open on both ends

open on 1 end: (every discrete number, all)

- wavelength = 4L / n

- frequency = nv/ 4L

Open at both ends: (every other, odds only)

- wavelength = 2L / n

- frequency = nv / 2L

which points in the geographic North direction?

- Magnetic north pole, but the south end of the magnet 

- Magnetic north pole, but the south end of the magnet

coulomb's law

- used to find the force two charges exert when d distance apart 

So when two the distance between who charges decrease the force between them increases. also explains why charges repel or attract. 

- used to find the force two charges exert when d distance apart

So when two the distance between who charges decrease the force between them increases. also explains why charges repel or attract.

Unit of coulomb

C = A * s

Electric Field (E)

a stationary charge Q creates an EF of magnitude

E = (Kq) / d^2


AKA - electric potential difference

V = (kq) / d

Useful when asked questions about charge or electricity use POTENTIAL DIFFERENCES

w (work) = energy = q * (Vfinal - V initial)


how quickly energy is measured

P = I * V OR I ^2 * R (use ohms law)

Unit = Watt. [Joules / second]

Power = PE / time


how well a circuit can hold a charge when potential difference is applied.

C = charge / volts

measured in Farads

metallic vs electrolytic conductivity

Best analytical technique to distinguish between a ketone and an aldehyde with the same number of carbons?


Pyruvate Decarboxylase converts pyruvate to what?

And what type of reaction is it?

conversion of pyruvate to acetyl-CoA


In eukaryotic cells, where is the highest concentration of phosphorus likely to be found?

The DNA backbone is made up of phosphate groups and deoxyribose sugars. Therefore, the NUCLEUS has the most [P] content.

while the cell membrane is primarily composed of phospholipids, which have one phosphate group per molecule. In contrast, DNA has a phosphate group for every base.

Cholecystokinin (CCK)

Acts in the small intestine upon the entry of food into the duodenum from the stomach.

Peptide hormone functions to aid in digestion.

Stimulating feelings of fullness to suppress hunger, inhibiting stomach emptying, and lowering gastric acid secretion.


Aka growth hormone inhibiting hormone

is the hormone that inhibits the release of CCK, not the other way around.

therefore, promotes hunger, etc.


is involved in sleeping and respiration.

The eukaryotic RNA stop codons are:

UAG, UAA, and UGA.

Which of the following most likely pushes a cardiac myocyte above the threshold membrane potential level?

Electrical signals are propagated through the heart and that a cardiac myocyte will not be able to achieve an action potential on its own.

Therefore, it must rely on one or more neighboring cells.

Why is there a pause at the AV node?

The pause created by the AV node occurs after the atria begin to emptying their blood into the ventricles.

In the Hardy-Weinberg equation:

- p and q represent what?

- P^2, pq, and q^2 mean what?

- p and q represent the FREQUENCY of the dominant and recessive alleles, respectively, found in a population (p + q = 1).

- the phenotypic outcomes in a POPULATION can be calculated as (p + q)2, giving us p2 + 2pq + q2 = 1.

Sense vs. Anti-sense?


Anode vs. cathode charges?

Electrolytic = non spot.

Cathode == -

Anode == +


SDS detergent is used for?

to ensure that polypeptides have a negative charge proportional to the length of the molecule.


An endosome is a membrane-bound compartment inside eukaryotic cells.

It is a compartment of the endocytic membrane transport pathway from the plasma membrane to the lysosome. where it would be destroyed if it lacked some form of "escape mechanism."

Which cytoskeletal component forms the majority of the outer layer of skin?

The outer layer of skin is made up of keratin accumulated in dead cells.

Keratin is an intermediate filament that has great strength.

Eastern Blot Technique?

Used to analyze protein post-translational modifications, such as lipids, phosphoro-moieties, and glycol-conjugates.

Eastern blotting can be considered an extension of the biochemical technique of western blotting.

PI equation?

the pI is the average of the two highest pKa values.

- esp. for AA with 3 PKA values, always pick the highest

when we exhale is our breath acidic or basic? and why ?


when you exhale CO2 forms with H2O then it becomes an acidic compound. H2CO3.

kinematic equations

momentum equation

impulse equation

Impulse is also the change in momentum / time. 

Impulse is also the change in momentum / time.

Rate of Effusion equation

& interpretation

rate1/rate2 = √(Temp2/Temp1)

Rate of effusion: when it equals 2 means that "The new rate is twice as large, or 100% larger than the original rate."

After Graham's law

rate = (1/MW)^1/2

Characteristics of an ideal bureaucracy.

Hierarchies of authority, divisions of labor, and frameworks of rules

Max Weber


Cross-sectional study

it evaluates the experimental subjects at multiple points in time, not just one.

Phosphorylation usually occurs on what 4 Amino Acids?

serine (S), threonine (T), tyrosine (Y), and histidine (H) residues in eukaryotic proteins.

She Thinks You Hate her

We usually write transition elements in what connotation of their hybridization and why?

In d2sp3 hybridization, the principal quantum number of the d orbitals is one less than the principal quantum numbers of the s and p orbitals

Chromatic aberration

An optical instrument fails to converge light rays from a source to a single point.

Blurred image

If transmitted light rays refracted differently depending on their wavelengths, then what would occur?

The effective focal length of the lens would differ for each wavelength of light.

So for any light containing rays of multiple wavelengths, the rays would focus at multiple points, resulting in an unfocused image.

AKA chromatic aberration, in which optical instrument fails to converge light rays from a source to a single point.

How to fix Mypoia ?

Nearsighted = diverging lens = concave lens

Focal point is too near, need to make focal point longer

How to determine the number of stereoisomers in a molecule?

THE 2 ^ n RULE

where n is the number of chiral carbons.

*** But if you have a meso compound, you need to subtract it by 1. ex) 2^2 = 4 -1 = 3

At MAX Entropy is when the system is at ?

Equilibrium here are no energy gradients within the isolated system, so energy is maximally dispersed, resulting in maximal entropy

and not able to do work, as the system would move towards less entropy if work was done.

Under what conditions do gases behave ideally?

Gases behave most ideally under high temperatures and low pressures.

Lowest bond dissociation enthalpy means


as the least amount of energy needed to break a covalent bond.

Pressure and Vol, and how are they related?

Directly proportional

boyle's law

Work done by gravity ?

Gravity is a conservative force, so the work done by gravity is path-independent.

USE PE equation to solve.

Max KE Equation

Energy total - Work done

electron WITHdrawing group (EWG)

deactivating groups.

deactivating groups.

electron DONATing group (EDG)

Activating groups 
have e-s to donate in 

Activating groups

have e-s to donate in

Acidity is determined by the stability of the:

conjugate base.

The more stable the conjugate, the stronger the original acid.

Ex) why phenol is more acidic than cyclohexanol

Trend for atomic size ?

increases heading down, and towards the left

What functional group is formed with each peptide bond?

For SN2 reactions what happens to the stereochemistry of the molecule?


- linear: subst. in the plane and the one behind. 

- Cyclic: only out/in can invert. 


- linear: subst. in the plane and the one behind.

- Cyclic: only out/in can invert.

Where does the eye see the object and image, think about the 1/f = 1/o + 1/i

How to decrease the ionization of a weak acid?

Adding a strong acid will cause the rxn to shifft to the right because the increase [H+] causing the ionization to decrease.

Proportion relationship when a constant remains constant?

(For v = IR and F = ma)

Voltage(V) is directly related to thecurrent (I) when the resistance(R) is constant.

V = IR also follows for F = ma when m is constant.

BUT if a = F / m and FORCE is kept constant then... a is INVERSELY proportional to mass.

Graphs between direct square and indirect square?

Power equations?

Power = Work / time in seconds

Power = current * Voltage

Power (heat) = I^2 * resistance

Where does kinase enzyme receive the source of Phosphate groups?

ATP this enzyme catalyzes the transfer of phosphate groups from high-energy, phosphate-donating molecules to specific substrates.


- made from

- acts on

An enzyme made of protein BUT acts on the hydrolysis of FATS

types of bonds formed my glycogen synthase?

ALPHA 1, 4 glycosidic bonds

Where beta 1,4 is in cellulose and we can't digest this type of bond

Food pound Force

symbol: ft·lb

corresponding SI unit is the joule.

measurement of pound.

Chaperone defined as ?

Facilitates proper protein folding and inhibits the formation of nonfunctional protein aggregates

Heat shock proteins

where does golmerular filtrate reach its highest concentration?

medulla in the collecting duct

Function of NA K ATPase during a neuronal action potential?

restoration of the resting potential by moving ions against their concentration gradients

Diffusion of molecules through the cellular membrane and relative speeds due to characteristics?

small / np = FAST (i.e. co2, o2)

small / polar = slow (i.e. H2O)

Large / n.p = slow (i.e. benzene)

large / polar = cannot pass independently

charged / polar = cannot pass independently

Phoshodiester bond?

classical vs. operant conditioning?

The key difference between the two is that with operant conditioning [skinner] the behavior elicits a stimulus (i.e. the behavior directly results in reinforcement or punishment)

Classical conditioning [Pavlov] relies solely on the temporal association of the unconditioned and conditioned stimuli.

Actor-observer bias?

Actors attribute their behavior to situational factors (i.e. not feeling well)


observes attribute actor's behavior to dispositional factors (i.e. social awkwardness)

selye's general adaptation syndrome

a specific type of stressor is UNneccessary as the human stress response is not specific to the type of stressor


A process of renovation and revival of deteriorated urban neighborhoods by means of influx of more affluent residents, which results in increased property values and the displacing of lower-income families and small businesses

mixed-methods study

having QUANT and QUAL type of data in a study

Net ATP produced at step step of respiration per glucose molecule?

- Glycolysis = 2 ATP 2 NADH

- Pyruvate decarboxylation = 2 NADH


- ETC = summation of all products


KEY difference between mitosis vs. meiosis?

the spiltting of centromeres: occurs during anaphase of meisosis I, homologous pairs of chromosones pull into sister chromatids

Imbreeding causes an increase and decrease in what?

increase in the amount of deleterious recessive traits, while decreasing the amount of genetic variation


REABSORPTION of Na+ in the body via the kidney tubules

Liver can regenerate via ?


Polarity affects boiling point of a molecule how?

MORE polar means HIGHER BP

What is the purpose of adding air bubbles within a distillation ?

prevents superheating of the liquid by breaking the surface tension of the liquid. another application is adding a boiling chip

*Superheating = when a liquid is above boiling without vaporization

weak acid Ksp?

Much less than 1

b/c weak acid does not dissociate well

Bohr Atom model

Energy emitted (give off) when an e- fails to move from higher to lower orbital

Table Trends

Structure of Benzoic Acid

Acid/Base Def by

- Lewis

- Arrhenius

- Broasted-Lowry

Galvanic cell


[Ox] [Red]

- +

e- source e sink

E + where G is -

electrolytic cell

CATHODE <--------- Anode

Req a battery - / +

E - where G is +

Relative Deprivation

gap between one has and what one expects particularly in comparison to some specific reference group in society

Word population calculated by what two factors ?

# births and # deaths

Storage Lipids


- 3 Fatty Acids, ester linked to a single glycerol

K eq and its relationship to Delta G ?

Delta G = - R T ln (k eq)

when K is Less than ZERO so the ln (-#) = -

when K is more than ZERO so the ln (+#) = +

Coordinate Bond

When an atom is bonded to a molecule (NOT a polyatomic ion) the bond that is made is the result of a lewis acid-base reaction and is called a coordinate bond.

Ex) [Cu(NH3)4]2+

Coordination number?

The number of groups that the central atom is bonded to.

EX) H2O the number two indicates that TWO hydrogens are bonded to 1 oxygen.

When you need to calculate the BUFFER pH of a solution, use which equation?

Henderson Hasselbach

pH = pka + log (base/acid)

K sp?

K sp = [acid] [base] OR [cation] [anion] 

when the concentration is the same,

K sp = [acid] [base] OR [cation] [anion]

when the concentration is the same,

What forms the exterior and interior of a DNA helix?

exterior = Sugar phosphate backbone 

interior = base pairs (ATCG)

exterior = Sugar phosphate backbone

interior = base pairs (ATCG)

When producing a charge of positive or negative this results from the removal/addition of H/e?

This means charge / magnitude charge of electron/proton

if the charge is + then it means the system now has a net charge + meaning electrons were REMOVED from the system

If - then that means protons were removed from the system

What can affect the size of a bond?

smaller radii, smaller bond length

at STP means what in terms of the vol constant?

22.4 L / mol.

need to use mol ratio from equation to solve for Liters.

22.4 L/mol * 1.5 mol ~ 34.5 L

Lens Diverging vs converging?


- Focal length = NEGATIVE

- creates a VIRTUAL, upright image, with focal point on same side of image and object. UVS

- also creates a smaller image.


- Focal Length = POSITIVE

- creates a Real, Inverted, with focal point on the Opposite side of the object, same as image. RIO

- creates a larger image

Hydrogen bond is between what in a secondary structure of DNA?

The AMIDE protons in the BACKBONE


the oxygen of the carbonyl

Having a high PI indicates what?

A positive Charge

EX) PI = 9 means the AA residues on the protein are + charged.

What is a prion

is an abnormally folded protein that induces a normally folded version of that protein to also adopt the abnormal structure, which is often deleterious

inflammation and the cells associate with it?

Recruitment of leukocytes to the sites of inflammation