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67 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
In 1960, a devastating tsunami generated off the west coast of South America, near Chile, struck Hilo. About how long did the tsunami take to travel from South America to Hilo?
15 hours
How does coral reef formation differ from most other natural processes that shape coastlines?

they shape coasts through biological activity
How can coastal features such as wave-cut notches exist thousands of feet below sea level in Hawai'i?

the islands are sinking
What was the relationship between global temperature and sea level in the Pleistocene Epoch?

when temperatures warmed, sea levels rose
how do hanging valleys with high waterfalls form?

deep erosion by glaciers leaves stream beds stranded high above U-shaped valley floors
a dune formed when wind blows from multiple directions, and may grow hundreds of feet high, is which type of dune

star dune

During interglacial, sea levels ________, temperatures_________, and the amount of global ice ____________.

rose, rose, decreased
How fast do most tsunamis travel in the opean ocean (in miles per hour, mph)?

more than 400 mph
if wave travels a distance of 5 wavelengths in 20 seconds, what is the wave period?

4 seconds
How can the Ice in a glacier be moving downhill but the tongue of the glacier be retreating at the same time?

the tongue is melting faster than the ice is flowing downhill
Some scientists have suggested that the trade wind inversion over Hawai'i was lower during the last glacial 21,000 years ago. This theory is based on evidence that the climate was

wetter at low elevations, but drier between 1000 and 2000 meters (3000 and 6000 feet)
Earlier in the course, you learned that the Hawaiian Island chain stretches far to the northwest and then continues underwater all the way to Asia. What best describes the last few islands remaining above water at the far northwest end of the Hawaiian Island chain?
Surveys of the Martian surface revealed many soccer-ball sized rocks with flattened sides. These individual rocks are called

Cape Hatteras is located on a sand deposit, which is not connected to the mainland, that is hundreds of miles long off the east coast of North America. What is this formation called?

barrier island
Which of the following is the proper evolutionary sequence of volcanic island in the tropics, from youngest to oldest state?

fringing reef, barrier reef, atoll, guyot
If you come upon a wide landscape of rounded pebbles and bare rock, it was probably created by ___________ erosion.
blowing wind
why are some streams and rivers brown colored

suspended sediments
which of the following does the most work of erosion?

running water
if rain falls in one drainage basin, why can't it flow out a stream in a different drainage basin?

it would have to flow uphill
which drainage pattern would you most likely see on a round, volcanic island, such as Kauai?

which directions do nickpoints move?

what is an important reason that amphitheater-headed valleys form in Hawai'i
tapping of groundwater widens valley floors
under what conditions do braided streams (streams with many channels) occur

when the sediment load is greater than the ability of the stream to carry it
why do oxbow lakes have a curved shape

they used to be curved river channels
which of the following is an example of chemical weathering

dissolving limestone to form Carlsbad Caverns
Hydration causes ___________ in rocks through the absorption of ____________.

expansion, water
When a stream renews downward erosion after creating floodplains, it can carve step-like

stream terraces
where will the next giant, submarine landslide probably occur in the Hawaiian islands?

Big Island
Why is there so little fluvial erosion on the active volcanoes in Hawai'i?
highly porous rock and filing by lava flows
why do so many people around the world live in floodplains?

excellent farmland
how does running water get its energy from sunlight?

wind and evaporation
which of the following rivers a bird's foot delta?

The Hawaiian Islands are what type of volcanic structure?

shield volcano
A hypsometric curve of Earth shows that most continental surface exists near _____________ and most ocean bottom is found at _____________.
sea level, 2-3 mi (3-5 km) depth
What causes basin and range topography?

tension and faulting on large rock masses
How was the Hilina Pali Fault System Formed
the southern flank of Kilauea is slumping into the ocean
Effusive, Hawaiian-type, volcanic eruptions are generally composed of ___________ lavas, high in _______________.
basaltic, iron and magnesium
what are rift zones on Hawaiian volcanoes?

deep fractures in the mountain mass
An earthquake of magnitude 6 on the Richter scale has how much greater seismic movement than a magnitude 3 earthquake.

1000 times as much
Where would you be most likely to find a continental shield

center of Africa
When were Diamond Head and Punchbowl Crater formed?

within the past 100,000 years
If someone told you they were looking at a horst and graben, you would immediately know that _____________.

faulting had occurred in the area
Which of the following is a dormant volcano in Hawai'i?

On average, compared to oceanic crust, continental crust is?

Which of the following are the first seismic waves to arrive during an earthquake?

Terrane (not terrain) refers to

newly accreted continental crust
Magmas rich in silicates, having high viscosity, and associated with explosive eruptions are commonly found at

subduction zones such as the Western Pacific rim
As time passes, rock under compression may go through the following sequence, from youngest to oldest:

thrust fault, syncline, anticline
Which direction is the pacific plate moving?

which of the following would most likely preserve the skeleton of an extinct creature

sedimentary rock
the collision of what two plates has created the andes mountains?

South American, Nazca
Mid-oceanic ridges form over areas of ___________ and are composed of _______________ rock.

mantle upwelling, mafic basalt
when was the theory of plate tectonics proposed and accepted?
latter half of the twentieth century
most of Earth's volcanoes and earthquakes occur

at plate boundaries
Which of the following is true of Earth's continents and oceans?

The total ocean area and total land area have been about the same over the past 500 million years
Eurasia and North America were part of a group of continents that made up a large land mass called ___________ about ___________ million years ago.

Laurasia, 135
Marble is an example of what type of rock?
which of the following is an example of a geomorphic process?

glacial erosion
In general, exogenic (external) forces are _________ processes and endogenic (internal) forces are ____________ processes.

mountain reducing, mountain building
Which of the following gives the correct sequences of layers in the Earth, from the surface to the center?

crust, asthenosphere, lower mantle, core
most continental crust is made of _____________.

Which of the following is the correct order of age, from youngest island in the Hawaiian Island chain?

Big Island, Maui, O'ahu, Kaua'i
What is the Moho?

a discontinuity between the upper mantle and the crust
What would violate the Theory of Uniformatarianism?

gravity has twice the acceleration today as it had 2 billion years ago


studies the landforms that pattern Earth's surface and the processes that shapes them.

Moho (Mohorovicic discontinuity)

The crust and mantle are separated by a curious break which was discovered by analysis of seismic waves

igneous rock

the youngest rock, forms when molten magma (or lava, which is magma that flows onto the surface) cools and solidifies.