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94 Cards in this Set

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Altarpiece


painted or sculptured panel or shrine that sits on, above, or behind the altar


became most important new idea in painting, early in the 1300s


ST FRANCIS ALTARPIECE


by: Bonaventura Berlinghieri


gold background


tempera on wood


figures are flat and elongated


example of old tradition




CIMABUE


madonna enthroned with angels and prophets


a lot of gold including a gold background


proportions are off


not frontal


jesus is seated to the side


looks like hes sitting on her lap


symmetrical


angels repeat to create sense of movement


the colors create movement also




GIOTTO

very important painter


revived naturalism in classical art

GIOTTO


MADONNA ENTHRONED


tried to make painting look like the real world


naturalism- life like


better proportions


round baby face


used observation to create more realistic art


sense of depth

depth modeling

shading art to make it look like it has depth

ARENA CHAPEL, PADUA


GIOTTO


shows events from the life of jesus


paintings are frescoes


have to put paint on plaster while its wet

giornata

fresco


section worked on in a given day


'days work'

GIOTTO
LAMENTATION (ARENA CHAPEL)


arts try to conceal the giornata


commissioned by merchant


had a lot of money


CAPELLA SCROVEGNI


people wanted their city to be prettier than other cities


spent money just to make city look better

patronage

commisson

attribution

who the artist is painting

GIOTTO BETRAYAL OF JESUS
framing of the focal point


implied lines


site lines


color red repeats


torches are repetitive


lines direct you towards people


balance


not symmetrical (more people on one side than the other)



DUCCIO
MAESTA (VIRGIN AND CHILD ENTHRONED)


altarpiece


was taken apart, and put back together


gold coloring, included to draw your eye towards the altarpiece


symbol for holy place or person


saints and angels are framing the center


Mary and Jesus


patron saints of sienna


Duccio's mission was to create the most beautiful altarpiece to go in sienna


alters posture of individual heads


variety makes you look


everybody wanted their city to be the most beautiful



attribute

something that a saint is holding/wearing


something they are shown with that identifies them


PALAZZO PUBBLICO, SIENNA


served as government offices


LORENZETTI
EFFECTS OF GOOD GOVERNMENT IN THE CITY


showing effects of government in sienna


well maintained


everyone looks happy


buildings are pretty


dancing in the streets


people who live by the rules, listen to the laws made by leaders


wanted the leaders to remember there responsibility


protect the citizens, be fair


LORENZETTI
EFFECTS OF GOOD GOVERNMENT IN THE COUNTRY


people are traveling


everything is peaceful


good government brings order, safety, security


sienna is a great city


lady is holding a welcoming banner


and says that if you come and hurt our citizens then you will die


it's a warning


want their city to be safe and secure


huge timeout in renaissance because of the black death


Renaissance

time period when european society underwent change that distinguishes it from what came before, a turning point


medieval life was left behind, and a new life style developed

humanism

1. naturalism/secularism - wanted to make art more lifelike, focused on the world around them, interest in human experience (attempt to create greater naturalism)


2. individualism - a single subject, specific individual people


3. classicism- revival of interest in ancient greek and roman traditions



quattrocento

the 1400s

Florence Cathedral

wanted to hold a competition to get a new set of doors


so many good artists working in florence



BRUNELLESCHI


sacrifice of Isaac


Abraham, Isaac, and the angle


angle is in profile


GHIBERTI


sacrifice of Isaac


Isaac is larger


naturalism


hes nude


GATES OF PARADISE


Lorenzo Ghiberti


east doors


set of baptistery doors


used a new technique 


people in the panels


foreground and background


perspective


linear perspective


the way the people are standing 


li...

GATES OF PARADISE


Lorenzo Ghiberti


east doors


set of baptistery doors


used a new technique


people in the panels


foreground and background


perspective


linear perspective


the way the people are standing


lines are going to meet


used linear perspective in arranging each panel to create an illusion of depth


ISAAC AND HIS SONS


DONATELLO
SAINT MARK


removed sculpture from the architecture


free standing, not attached to building


reintroduced contrapposto


understood society he lived and worked in


image of nude saint would be unacceptable


DONATELLO


DAVID


first nude since roman times (other than adam and eve)


renaissance humanism


naturalistic looking image


reintroduced scale bronze sculptures


contrapposto


goes in someones house


god was on his side


standing on galieths severed head


hat tells viewers that it is david the shepherd boy


DONATELLO
GATTAMELATA
reintroduced equestrian sculpture


added orb to give the horse a forth point of contact ( so it wouldnt fall over )



VERROCCHIO
BARTOLOMMEO COLLEONI
much for confident


three feet down not four


leaning


angle makes it look norma


MASACCIO
EXPULSION OF ADAM AND EVE FROM EDEN


frescoes


you can see patches in the sky (meaning it was painted)


Adam and eve are being told to get out


eve is crying


Adam is ashamed


naturalism


chiaroscuro

way to make a natural looking figure


light dark


shape the figures by slowly grading tones from lighter to darker


imaginary light


where it hits the figure


MASACCIO
the tribute money


continuous narrative


in 3 sections


trees and mountains


buildings


and water


setting helps separate 3 parts


jesus is in the middle



continuous narrative

ongoing story


multiple scenes


MASACCIO
HOLY TRINITY


patrons/donors on the bottom


disciples


jesus


linear perspective


each person creates a triangle


patrons are kneeling


limited amount of colors


mary is looking at the viewer


mary catches your eye and pulls you in


UCCELLO
THE BATTLE OF SAN ROMANO
-florence and sienna were in a war


-white horse is the focal point


-using linear perspective


(spears create sense of lines converging into center)

BOTTICELLI PRIMAVERA


line was more prominent


light and shadow


lady in the middle is spring


nose is very outlined


shadow at jaw line


jaw to chin line


BOTTICELLI
BIRTH OF VENUS


wind blowing venus to make her move towards shore


rested motion


focal point- nudity


two figures are framing her


she is the lightest color in the composition


creates TRIANGULAR shape


surrounded venus with negative space


scallop shape is on shell, shape, shoreline, robe
created sense of unity


proportions are not naturalistic


POLLAIUOLO


battle of the ten nudes


-print making


-very common during the renaissance


-one of the ways middle class people could own art


-broadened audience and consumers for art


-some prints were free standing


-prints intended to go in books


-shows different postures where you can see the muscles


-cut up dead people


-anatomy


engraving

much more detail


woodcut


very fine lines


used the most


FLORENCE CATHEDRAL


dome


Brunelleschi - architect


roman and gothic architecture


knowledge of two different styles


studied pantheon


weight directing the thrust very precisely


innovative





Brunelleschi 


PAZZI CHAPEL


small


scaled to human dimension


supposed to walk in and feel like you fit 


wanted to create sense of balance


for example the squares are very symmetrical 


central plan


white walls and g...

Brunelleschi


PAZZI CHAPEL


small


scaled to human dimension


supposed to walk in and feel like you fit


wanted to create sense of balance


for example the squares are very symmetrical


central plan


white walls and grey stone


grey floors with white trim


unification


the building itself made it beautiful, not the extra stuff


if the proportions were right, or a sense of unity



Alberti


Santa Maria Novella


Alberti wanted to modernize it


curve to some of the lines


roman arches


greek pediment shape at the top


circles and squares



Aberti


Palazzo Rucellai


renaissance works of art


wealthy people


divided into thirds


proportional


sturdier


columns dont actually help


just for appearance


vitruvius

function


structure


beauty - proportions

PERUGINO


Christ delivering the keys of the kingdom to st. peter


being given authority to rule


to lead the christian church


chosen leader identified by jesus


symmetry


linear perspective


Atmospheric Persepctive

objects get blurrier and smaller from far away


horizon line is very pale blue


Piero Della Francesca


Brera Altarpiece


created a semi circle instead of standing in rows or on different levels


renaissance individualism


sacra conversazione


sacred conversation


figures are so close together, one continuous space


line made by hands and forearms


The Resurrection


Piero Della Francesca


creates triangle


people are like a rhythm


powerful looking




Alberti


San't Andrea, Mantua


roman arch plus greek temple


unified facade


made one big arch


no sculptures in the alcoves


'what makes a building beautiful is proportions'


would've been a much more freestanding sculpture in his day


cruciform


no aisle


no seperate chapels


High Renaissance

1490-1520s

what two cities were the centers of art and architecture?

FLORENCE AND ROME

Leonardo - self portrait

Leonardo - Madonna of the Rocks


atmospheric perspective


chirascuro


people in painting are triangle


looking at each other, connected


pointing fingers, attributing work to him


jesus is blessing him


intentionally made two babies, to make you look



Last Supper


fresco


Leonardo


in very bad shape


Jesus is the focal point


centered, in front of window


separated from everyone by space


Jesus has his own triangle


focal point through placement, shape and color


Jesus is calm, everyone around him is in action


lines make you look at Jesus


each one has a different reaction


judas is leaning back


he spilled salt - bad luck


no halos


arch suggest halo above jesus


Andres Serrano


Black Supper (II)


white and black figures


Leonardo


Mona Lisa


Perspective


sfumato


chiaroscuro


individualism because its a portrait


half length, 3/4 pose portrait


turned


face is at a different angle than shoulders


very lifelike


looking at the viewer


idea of woman looking at someone as equal was very rare


woman barely went out in public


difference in skin tone against background


drew attention to face



Michelangelo


Pieta


base has colored marble


work of art got attacked


moved it back so no one could get to it


Mary holding dead body of jesus


renaissance triangle


jesus body is a lot smaller


still holding her baby


Michelangelo


David


humanist


muscles


stance


looking at goliath


very tall


16 ft


can see veins in his hand


Sistine Chapel


ceiling is very long


people would bring him brushes


he did all of the painting himself


Sistine Chapel Ceiling


Michelangelo


rectangles are more important than triangles


narrative is the main thing that catches your eye


ceiling is a narrative


telling the story of the book of genesis


reads in chronological order when you walk in


made fewer figures to tell the story more clearly



Michelangelo


Creation of Adam


god is putting the finishing touches on adam


adam is lounging on the earth


final touch and spark of life


site line - looking at each other


curves fit together


Michelangelo


Fall of Man


Michelangelo


Last Judgement, Sistine Chapel


Altar Wall


very big space


jesus is the central figure


good people in heaven are higher in the painting


clouds are a barrier


anyone above clouds is in heaven


the going to hell was closer to the bottom


people saw it as a warning


many emotional responses


painted guy who criticized him as king of hell


michelangelo painted his face on bartholemew's skin

Raphael


Marriage of the Virgin


atmospheric perspective


door is focal point


balance


added text, he signed his name and date on building



Raphael


Madonna of the meadow


naturalism


kids leaning on mother


atmospheric and linear perspective


calmness and serenity


Raphael


Papal Apartments


walls are all frescoes


Raphael


School Of Athens


represents scholars of the classical past


appreciated and valued intelligence


classicism


sculptures of apollo and athena


greco Roman


architecture is inspired by rome, the ceiling, barrel vaults, dome


focal point are people under the arch


plato and Aristotle


represent two different kinds of knowledge


plato is pink robe, he is pointing up, he taught that everything on earth was a reflection of the perfect world


Aristotle gesturing down because he said knowledge comes from observation and experience around you


wearing more earth toned colors


two kinds of responsibilities of the pope


to lead people to god and to control them on earth


model of plato is based off Leonardo


person leaning on block is Michelangelo


he is represented as a philosopher, because of his appearance


Bramante


Tempietto


little temple


dome


column


frieze


elements from Greeks and Romans


symmetrical plan


mathematical 


symmetry and proportion make a building beautiful


circles and squares represent perfection
...

Bramante


Tempietto


little temple


dome


column


frieze


elements from Greeks and Romans


symmetrical plan


mathematical


symmetry and proportion make a building beautiful


circles and squares represent perfection


circular footprint contained within and square courtyard


Bramantes Original Plan


balance and symmetry


square shape


huge gigantic dome that would go over the altar


built from the church out


Michelangelo's Plan


kept central dome


and cruciform plan


apes at end of the arms


added:


a front - made one side the front by putting steps and porch


simplified bramantes plan


made more open and visually unified


built from the center out


made the front much longer


st peters basilica Rome


Michelangelo wanted the ribs for visual effect


wanted to extend vertical lines 


successful


 


 


 

st peters basilica Rome


Michelangelo wanted the ribs for visual effect


wanted to extend vertical lines


successful




Palladio 


Villa Rotonda


big house for wealthy people


private for business men


dome - renaissance


colonnade 


took elements and applied them to his home


very strict symmetry


central plan house


wanted to see all ...

Palladio


Villa Rotonda


big house for wealthy people


private for business men


dome - renaissance


colonnade


took elements and applied them to his home


very strict symmetry


central plan house


wanted to see all of his land in the countryside


all four faces are alike


each side had a good view


top of the hill



what are the three qualities of Venice painting

-oil on canvas


-color - really involved with bright, bold strong colors, they help communicate messages


-mood - poesia - speak to your senses and emotions


Giorgione


Pastoral Symphony


taking place out in the country


had more landscape and less people


emphasis on the natural setting


wanted subjects to be mysterious


wanted to make you look


nude women and clothed men


men are playing music and the women are the muses - inspiration for men's music



Giorgione


The tempest


a storm is coming


nervous


allegory - type of personification


guy is soldier holding weapon


personifying bravery, courage


Titian


Assumption Of the Virgin


altarpiece


mary is going to heaven


draw attention to painting in large church


stands out visually


bright colors


gold and red


top represents heaven


used color to divide heaven and earth


triangle is red


site lines are centered



titian


Pesaro madonna


diagonal


right triangle


renaissance naturalism


way of uniting group of people


Mary and jesus are emphasis


implied site line


young boy is looking at the viewer


connects the viewer to the painting


real world and imaginary world


gateway to heaven


st peter is wearing yellow and blue


angels holding a cross


titian


meeting of bacchus and ariadne


reflection of humanism


narrative


greek myth


love at first site


same colors are used in their skin tone


looking at each other


both have arm across their torso


two cheetahs are signs of love


he is falling in love


leaving his followers behind


wanted scenes of parties


blue was made form minerals


bright blue in the sky


Titian


Venus of Urbino


white around her is the emphasis


dark curtain in the background


pale skin


dog at the foot of the bed balances the bed


venus is in the foreground


ladies in the background


red and green in both corners of the painting


looking directly at the viewer


Sofonisba Anguissola


Portrait of the artists sisters and brothers


gave his son and daughters the most humanist education


mannerism

wanted everything to be real looking


but they were much more interested in imbalance


something being not quite right


makes you look


Pontormo


entombment of christ; deposition; descent from the cross


all crushed into very small space (wouldnt have happened in the renaissance)


bodies are too big, heads too small



Parmigianino


Madonna with the long neck


proportions are off


very long neck


unbalanced, no mass on right side


mannerism


baby is huge


sitting weirdly


Bronzino


Venus, Cupid


Folly and time


incestuous relationship


mannerist artists want to make you unsettled


time reveals the folly of making bad choices


'don't do stupid things, don't try to do something and keep it undercover'



Giulio Romano (Giulio)


Palazzo del Te


frieze, pediments, arches, keystones


decoration is unbalanced


arch and pediment define an entrance


keystone holds everything else in place


mannerism something new


trying to startle or surprise you


Giacomo da vignola


Il Gesu


Church of Jesus


similar to the santa maria novella


use of pediment


spots that are projecting


textural effect


emphasizing width


has a dome


CHAPTER 20


northern Europe

northern- not italy


naturalism/secularism


individualism


oil paint


(great flexibility, more time to experiment)


allowed them to do a lot more with color

Merode Altarpeice


By campin


family that owned it


triptych- 3 panels/sections


in a home or chapel (private)


the annunciation (when mary is told by angel gabriel that she is having jesus)


show religious scenes in a contemporary setting


connect religion to peoples daily lives


tabletop is a weird angle (makes you look at the objects on the table)


flowers, book and candle


(3 flowers on 1 stem- trinity)


trying to show specific moment in type


jesus is coming out of the window and going to light


on marys tummy


different seasons in wing


(spring annunciation, winter birth of jesus)


right- joseph building something in carpenter shop (related to mary)


building a mousetrap - mouse is evil


left daniel - patron and his wife witnessing


Jan Van eyck


Ghent Altarpiece


patrons are on the bottom outside (people wearing red)


wanted to make cathedral more beautiful and impressive


red focuses your attention


god is in the center


outside edges are adam and eve


variation in skin tone


naturalism


angels


heaven


bottom is earth


triangle on bottom


lamb is a symbol for jesus


red and green contrast with each other




Jan Van Eyck


Arnolfini Marriage


clothes, they are wealthy


transfer of property and ownership


mirror is to show they are wealthy


if you look in the mirror you see a wedding


property transaction


one candle thats burning on chandellier


gods presence


dog represents loyalty


next to mirror are beads, they are casting shadows


Jan Van Eyck


Man in a Red Turban


self portrait of himself


wanted to be remembered


color to create light and shadow and texture


advertised what he could do


Rogier


Deposition


taking jesus body off of cross to prepare for burial


originally part of an altarpiece


center panel


figures are very crisp


outlines are very sharp and clear


definite form


jesus is in the center, he is very pale


stands out against stronger colors


created balance by using foreground


visual pattern creates more visual weight


pattern looks like it takes up more space


bodies are both bent in the arch


can see tear drop running down faces


everybody has a white collar or vail or jar


except one, john.


at the end of his robe is a white skull



Dirk Bouts


Last Supper


disciples seated at the table


tile floor


jesus is center


black and red clothing


Limbourg Brothers


Très Riches Heures Du duc De Berry


book of hours


prayer book for personal devotions


help you know what prayers are supposed to be said in the morning and the evening


prayers in different points in the year


international gothic


figures are elongated and look delicate


for upper class


art meant to look expensive


traveled from court to court to spread


cycle of the year


peasants are happy and healthy looking

Limbourg Brothers


Annunciation from Tres Riches Heures


brothers died


unfinished