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83 Cards in this Set

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The Inca civilization (or Inka civilization) began as a tribe in the Cuzco area, where the legendary first Sapa Inca, Manco Capac founded the Kingdom of Cuzco around 1200. Under the leadership of the descendants of Manco Capac, the Inca state grew to absorb other Andean communities. In 1442, the Incas began a far-reaching expansion under the command of Patchacuti. He founded the Inca Empire which became the largest empire in pre-Columbian America.
The empire was later split by a civil war to decide who would be Inca Hanan and who would be Inca Hurin
The Maya is a Mesoamerican civilization, noted for the only known fully developed written language of the pre-Columbian Americas, as well as its art, architecture, and mathematical and astronomical systems. Initially established during the Pre-Classic period (c. 2000 BC to 250 AD), according to the Mesoamerican chronology, many Maya cities reached their highest state development during the Classic period (c. 250 AD to 900 AD), and continued throughout the Post-Classic period until the arrival of the Spanish. At its peak, it was one of the most densely populated and culturally dynamic societies in the world.
The Aztec people were certain ethnic groups of central Mexico, particularly those groups who spoke the Nahuatl language and who dominated large parts of Mesoamerica in the 14th, 15th and 16th centuries, a period referred to as the late post-classic period in Mesoamerican chronology
aztec is the nahuatl word for people from aztlan
chaco canyon
Chaco Canyon, for all its wild beauty, seems an unlikely place for the Anasazi culture to take root and flourish. This is desert country, with long winters, short growing seasons, and marginal rainfall. Yet a thousand years ago, this valley was a center of Anasazi life. This people farmed the lowlands and built great masonry towns that connected with other towns over a far-reaching network of roads. In architecture, in complexity of community life, in social organization, the Anasazi of Chaco Canyon reached heights rarely matched and never surpassed by their kindred in the Four Corners region.
woodland indans
From before 1000 BC until 1000 AD the North American continent was inhabited by prehistoric Native Americans of the Woodland era. These were culturally and technically advanced tribes who began permanently inhabiting villages, unlike their nomadic predecessors the Archaic Indians. Woodland Indians are noted for the cultivation of crops in the fertile valleys of North Georgia, creating intricately designed, tempered pottery with the ubiquitous red Georgia clay, building burial mounds and other ceremonial structures and effigies, and developing a system of trade relying on inland waterways and coastal passages.
mobile societies
(native americans)
..a `mobile' society creates a part of its wealth from processes that do not depend on the territory: a bottle making factory uses raw materials that come from the ground, whether they be oil for energy or sand for glass. In addition, however, the factory `adds value' to the raw materials by making the bottles
agriculture (natives)
.The first humans (natives) to visit what is now Virginia could hunt animals, gather fruits from trees/vines, and pull handfuls of seeds from wild plants. However, the first humans to visit what is now Virginia were not able to plant, nurture, and harvest a crop - because those first humans lacked the expertise and resources to practice agriculture
lief ericson
It is believed that Leif was born about AD 970 in Iceland, the son of Erik Thorvaldsson, known as Erik the Red
was a Norse explorer who is regarded as the first European to land in North America (excluding Greenland), nearly 500 years before Christopher Columbus. According to the Sagas of Icelanders, he established a Norse settlement at Vinland
Prince henry the navigator
4 March 1394 – 13 November 1460) was an infante (prince) of the Kingdom of Portugal and an important figure in the early days of the Portuguese Empire, being responsible for the beginning of the European worldwide explorations and maritime trade.
Henry the Navigator was the third child of King John I of Portugal, the founder of the Aviz dynasty
christopher columbus
c. 31 October 1451 – 20 May 1506) was a navigator, colonizer, and explorer from Genoa, Italy
whose voyages across the Atlantic Ocean led to general European awareness of the American continents in the Western Hemisphere. With his four voyages of exploration and several attempts at establishing a settlement on the island of Hispaniola, all funded by Isabella I of Castile, he initiated the process of Spanish colonization which foreshadowed general European colonization of the "New World".
ferdinand magellan
c. 1480 – April 27, 1521) was a Portuguese explorer. He was born at Sabrosa, in northern Portugal, but later obtained Spanish nationality in order to serve King Charles I of Spain in search of a westward route to the "Spice Islands" (modern Maluku Islands in Indonesia).
the conquistadors
The Renaissance & Elizabethan Age of Exploration to the New World was dominated by the Spanish Conquistadors. The success of the Spanish Conquistadors in acquiring monopolies on much of the Eastern spice trade and their expeditions to the New World brought great wealth and power to Spain. The new discoveries made by the Spanish Conquistadors brought untold riches in terms of gold and silver and spices and it also brought power and influence
1485 – December 2, 1547) was a Spanish conquistador who led an expedition that caused the fall of the Aztec Empire and brought large portions of mainland Mexico under the rule of the King of Castile in the early 16th century. Cortés was part of the generation of Spanish colonizers that began the first phase of the Spanish colonization of the Americas.
fransisco pizarro
Pizarro was born in the town of Trujillo, in modern day Extremadura, Spain. Sources differ in the birth year they assign to him: 1471, 1475–1478, or unknown. He was an illegitimate son of Gonzalo Pizarro Rodríguez de Aguilar (senior) (1446–1522) who as colonel of infantry served in the Italian campaigns under Gonzalo Fernández de Córdoba, and in Navarre, with some distinction
ordinance of discovery
.law issued by King Philip II. The importance of this law was to keep track of all political and economic life in newly discovered places
catholic missions
During the Age of Discovery, the Roman Catholic Church established a number of Missions in the Americas and other colonies through the Augustinians, Franciscans and Dominicans in order to spread Christianity in the New World and to convert the Native Americans and other indigenous people
st augustine 1565
St. Augustine is a city in the northeast section of Florida and the county seat of St. Johns County, Florida, United States Founded in 1565 by Spanish explorer and admiral, Pedro Menéndez de Avilés, it is the oldest continuously occupied European-established city and port in the United States
The encomienda is a labor system that was employed by the Spanish crown during the Spanish colonization of the Americas and the Philippines. In the encomienda, the crown granted a person a specified number of natives for whom they were to take responsibility. The receiver of the grant was to protect the natives from warring tribes and to instruct them in the Spanish language and in the Catholic faith. In return, they could exact tribute from the natives in the form of labor, gold or other products, such as in corn, wheat or chickens. In the former Inca empire, for example, the system continued the Incaic (and even pre-Incaic) traditions of exacting tribute under the form of labor.
pueblo revolt 1650
.The Pueblo Revolt of 1680 or Popé's Rebellion was an uprising of many pueblos of the Pueblo people against Spanish colonization of the Americas in the New Spain province of New Mexico
Mestizo is a Spanish term that was used during the Spanish colonial period in Latin America to refer to people of mixed European and Amerindian ancestry.
john cabot
. was an Italian navigator and explorer whose 1497 discovery of North America is commonly held to be the first European voyage to the continent since Norse exploration of the Americas in the early eleventh century. The official position of the Canadian and United Kingdom governments is that he landed on the island of Newfoundland
richard hakluyt
.Was an English writer born near London, England
The hakluyts were of welsh descent not dutch as he has been supposed
He is principally remembered for is efforts in promoting
And supporting the settlement of north America
By the English through his works
doctorina of predestination
..French theologian and pastor during the Protestant Reformation. He was a principal figure in the development of the system of Christian theology later called Calvinism
the english reformation
.The English Reformation was the series of events in 16th-century England by which the Church of England first broke away from the authority of the Pope and the Roman Catholic Church
john calvin
.John Calvin was an influential French theologian and pastor during the Protestant Reformation.
puritan separists
.The first humans (natives) to visit what is now Virginia could hunt animals, gather fruits from trees/vines, and pull handfuls of seeds from wild plants. However, the first humans to visit what is now Virginia were not able to plant, nurture, and harvest a crop - because those first humans lacked the expertise and resources to practice agriculture
elizabeth 1st
..1558-1503 Ruled England and was known as Virgin Queen Gloriana
Coreurs de bois
..an individual who was engaged in the fur trade without permission from the French authorities. they were later known as voyageurs
New Amsterdam
. it was a 17th-century Dutch colonial settlement that served as the capital of New Netherlands (what is now new York).
West india company
.. was a charter company of Dutch merchants that had a trade monopoly with Asia. it was also known as the Geoctroyeerde Westindische Compagnie or GWC
puritan separatists
.A group favored individual inspiration and interpretation.
-They gave up formal ceremonies and a formal ministry, refused to offer any social ranking, and advocated a peaceful coexistence with all.
-They were often subjected to intense persecution but did not retaliate.
- Religious tolerance, equality of the sexes, and full participation of women in religious affairs were also part of their tolerance for others
elizabeth I
1558-1503 Ruled England and was known as Virgin Queen Gloriana
coureurs de bois
an individual who was engaged in the fur trade without permission from the French authorities. they were later known as voyageurs
new amsterdam
it was a 17th-century Dutch colonial settlement that served as the capital of New Netherlands (what is now new York).
west india company
was a charter company of Dutch merchants that had a trade monopoly with Asia. it was also known as the Geoctroyeerde Westindische Compagnie or GWC
sir walter raleigh
He was an English aristocrat, writer, poet, soldier, courtier, spy and explorer largely known for popularizing tobacco in England.In 1584, he dispatched an expedition to explore the eastern coast of North America for an appropriate location.
was an enterprise financed and organized by Sir Walter Raleigh. Between 1585 and 1587, several groups attempted to establish a colony, but either abandoned the settlement or died
james I
He then ruled England, Scotland, and Ireland for 22 years, often using the title King of Great Britain
It is the first permanent English settlement in the USA. it is located on Jamestown Island in the Virginia colony and was founded on May 14, 1607.
john smith
He was a leader of the Virginia colony between September 1608 and August 1609, and led an exploration along the rivers of Virginia and the Chesapeake Bay
lord de lavar
was the Englishman after whom the bay, the river, and, consequently, an American Indian people and U.S. senate, all later called "Delaware", were named
upon the arrival of Europeans in North America, it quickly became popularized as a trade item and as a recreational drug. This popularization led to the development of the southern economy of the U.S. until it gave way to cotton
virginia company
consisted of two companies, the "Virginia Company of London" and the "Virginia Company of Plymouth". they were Join stock companies chartered by James I on 10 April 1606 with the purposes of establishing settlements on the coast of North America
john winthrop
.-Governor of Massachusetts Bay Colony.
-Winthrop was instrumental in forming the colony’s government and shaping its legislative policy.
-He envisioned the colony, centered in present-day Boston, as a “city upon a hill” from which Puritans would spread religious righteousness throughout the world
theogratic society
."Theocracy" comes from two Greek words, Theos, God, and kratein, to rule.
A Theocracy is where God rules, or governs.
Nothing here about priests; nothing here about the Taliban; nothing about a policeman standing on every corner
a theocratic society is a society in which kings do not exist everything is ruled by god
anne hutchinson
1603 – between January and March 1683) was an American Protestant theologian, and the first American proponent of religious freedom and the separation of church and state. In 1636, he began the colony of Rhode Island and Providence Plantations, which provided a refuge for religious minorities. Williams started the First Baptist Church in America Providence before leaving to become a Seeker. He was a student of Indian languages and an advocate for fair dealings with Native Americans
roger williams
.Anne Hutchinson (baptized July 20, 1591 – August 20, 1643) was a pioneer settler in Massachusetts, Rhode Island and New Netherlands and the unauthorized minister of a dissident church discussion group
pequot war
The Pequot War was an armed conflict in 1634-1638 between an alliance of Massachusetts Bay and Plymouth colonies with Native American allies (the Narragansett and Mohegan tribes) against the Pequot tribe. The result was the elimination of the Pequot as a viable polity in what is present-day Southern New England
king philips war
.King Philip's War, sometimes called Metacom's War or Metacom's Rebellion, was an armed conflict between Native American inhabitants of present-day southern New England and English colonists and their Native American allies in 1675–1676. The war is named after the main leader of the Native American side, Metacomet, Metacom, or Pometacom, known to the English as "King Philip" It continued in northern New England (primarily on the Maine frontier) even after King Philip was killed, until a treaty was signed at Casco Bay in April 1678
the narragansetts
.Narragansett, a dialect of the Massachusett language Rohde Island and Providence
english civil war
.The English Civil War (1642–1651) was a series of armed conflicts and political machinations between Parliamentarians and Royalists. The first (1642–46) and second (1648–49) civil wars pitted the supporters of King Charles I against the supporters of the Long Parliament, while the third war (1649–51) saw fighting between supporters of King Charles II and supporters of the Rump Parliament. The Civil War ended with the Parliamentary victory at the Battle of Worcester on 3 September 1651
middle colonies
The Middle Colonies, also known as the Bread Colonies or the Breadbasket Colonies for the region's production of wheat, grain, and oats were one area of the Thirteen British Colonies in pre-Revolutionary War Northern America
quakers try to testify their beliefs in everyday life
founded by george fox, he though it was possible to have direct contact w/ Jesus Christ w/ out they were called quakers because they were required to tremble in god's name
william penn
October 14, 1644 – July 30, 1718) was an English real estate entrepreneur, philosopher, and founder and "absolute proprietor" of the Province of Pennsylvania
charter of liberties
was a written proclamation by Henry the I of England, issued upon his accession to the throne in the year 1100.It sought to bind the King to certain laws regarding the treatment of church officials and nobles
black codes
black codes were basic laws that limited the civil rights of african americans these laws were more common in the south
holy experiment
The "Holy Experiment" was an attempt by the Quakers to establish a community for themselves in Pennsylvania. They hoped it would show to the world how well they could function on their own without any
California 1760's
California was explored by the Spanish and English from the early 1500s to the mid-1700s. In the 18th century, Spanish soldiers and missionaries traveled to north California and build missionaries, towns and forts.
james oglethorpe
December 22, 1696
June 30, 1785 was a british general and philanthropist and founder of georgia
Mercantilism is an economic theory, thought to be a form of economic nationalism that holds that the prosperity of a nation is dependent upon its supply of capital, and that the global volume of international trade is "unchangeable".
the navigation acts
The Navigation Acts were passed by the English Parliament in the seventeenth century. The Acts were originally aimed at excluding the Dutch from the profits made by English trade
sir edmond andros
(December 6, 1637 – February 24, 1714) was an early colonial English governor in North America, and head of the short-lived Dominion of New England
the glorious revolution
also called the Revolution of 1688, was the overthrow of King James II of England by a union of parlemintaries with an invading army led by the Dutch stadtholder William III who later took the throne
headright system
Adopted first in Virginia and later in Maryland, this system of land distribution during the early colonial era granted settlers 50 acres for themselves and another 50 for each "head" (or person) they brought with them to the colony. This system was often used in conjunction with indentured servitude to build large plantations and supply them with labor
is the name of a Virginia Indian tribe. It is estimated that there were about 14,000-21,000 of these native Powhatan people in eastern Virginia when the English settled Jamestown in 1607. They were also known as Virginia Algonquians, as they spoke an eastern-Algonquian language known as Powhatan
In 1632 a charter for the province of Maryland was granted by Charles I of England to Cecilius Calvert, Lord Baltimore. (The charter was originally granted to Calvert's father, the first Lord Baltimore, who died before it became official.)
propietary rule
The British colonies of North America were founded as either proprietary colonies or as corporate colonies. A proprietary colony was a gift made by the king to a trading company or an individual, who then privately owned it. This type of colony was administered by a colonial governor, who was elected by the owner or owners and supposed to serve in their best interest
tolertation act
The Maryland Toleration Act, also known as the Act Concerning Religion, was a law mandating religious tolerance for trinitarian Christians. Passed on April 21, 1649 by the assembly of the Maryland colony, it was the second law requiring religious tolerance in the British North American colonies and created the first legal limitations on hate speech in the world
bacon's rebellion
.popular revolt in colonial Virginia in 1676, led by Nathaniel Bacon
plymouth plantation
Of Plymouth Plantation is the single most complete authority for the story of the Pilgrims and the early years of the Colony they founded. Written between 1620 and 1647, the journal describes the story of the Pilgrims from 1608, when they settled in the Netherlands through the 1620 Mayflower voyage, until the year 1647. The book ends with a list, written in 1650, of Mayflower passengers and what happened to them.
Mayflower Compact
The Mayflower Compact was the first governing document of Plymouth Colony. It was drafted by the Pilgrims who crossed the Atlantic aboard the Mayflower, seeking religious freedom. It was signed on November 11, 1620
William Bradford
(March 19, 1590 – May 9, 1657) was an English leader of the settlers of the Plymouth Colony in Massachusetts, and was elected thirty times to be the Governor after John Carver died. His journal (1620–47), was published as Of Plymouth Plantation. Bradford is credited as the first to proclaim what popular American culture now views as the first Thanksgiving
Colonial Currnecy
.Early American currency went through several stages of development in the colonial and post-Revolutionary history of the United States. Because few coins were minted in the thirteen colonies that became the United States in 1776, foreign coins like the Spanish dollar were widely circulated. Colonial governments sometimes issued paper money to facilitate economic activity. The British Parliament passed Currency Acts in 1751, 1764, and 1773 that regulated colonial paper money.
William Bradford
.(March 19, 1590 – May 9, 1657) was an English leader of the settlers of the Plymouth Colony in Massachusetts
and was elected 30 times for governor after john carver died
Cambridge Agreement
.The Cambridge Agreement was an agreement made on August 29, 1629, between the shareholders of the Massachusetts Bay Company. The Agreement led directly to the foundation of Boston, Massachusetts
Church of England (anglican)
The Church of England is the officially established Christian church in England, the Mother Church of the worldwide Anglican Communion and the oldest among the communion's thirty-eight independent national and regional churches
Covenant Theatre
a theater in which an agreement is formed with god through religious beliefs
Halfway Covenant
The Half-Way Covenant was a form of partial church membership created by New England in 1662. It was promoted in particular by the Reverend Solomon Stoddard, who felt that the people of the English colonies were drifting away from their original religious purpose
Thomas Hooker
.(July 5, 1586 – July 7, 1647) was a prominent Puritan religious and colonial leader, who founded the Colony of Connecticut after dissenting with Puritan leaders in Massachusetts. He was known as an outstanding speaker and a leader of universal Christian suffrage. Hooker also had a role in creating the "Fundamental Orders of Connecticut", one of the world's first written constitutions.
Saybrook Platform
Saybrook Platform refers to conservative religious proposals adopted at Saybrook, Connecticut in September 1708
Joint Stock Company
financed jamestown
it is a type of corporation or partnership involving two or more legal persons
.Cavalier was the name used by Parliamentarians for a Royalist supporter of King Charles I during the English Civil War (1642–1651). Prince Rupert, commander of much of Charles I's cavalry, is often considered an archetypical Cavalier
John Locke
29 August 1632 – 28 October 1704), widely known as the Father of Liberalism, was an English philosopher and physician regarded as one of the most influential of Enlightenment thinkers. Considered one of the first of the British empiricists, following the tradition of Francis Bacon, he is equally important to social contract theory.