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58 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
interpersonal communication
interactional process in which one person sends a message to another.
- interactional process= both participants send/receive information
- communicators interpret and create messages by reflecting on their own experiences
6 key elements of the communication process
sender, receiver, message, channel, noise, context
information or meaning that is transmitted from the sender to the receiver
- speakers encode their feelings, organize them into a message
- receivers decode the message into their own ideas and feelings
sensory means through which the message reaches the receiver
- hear, facial expression, gestures, eye contact
any stimulus that interferes with accurately expressing or understanding a message
- environmental, physical (poor hearing), psychological (hungry, headache)
- can have semantic origins (slurs, sexist, profanity)
environment when communication takes place
- physical environment (location, time, noise level, how conversation takes place- phone, face, internet)
- participants (relationship)
- history (previous convos)
- mood
- cultural backgrounds
common features of verbal communication (5)
1) non-verbal means too
2) people are SELECTIVE in initiating communication
3) communications are SYSTEMIC (not isolated)
4) unique (special vocabulary, patterns, rhythms)
5) processual (part of a continuous and evolving process that becomes more personal as people interact with greater frequency)
electronically mediated communication
- takes place through technology
- takes special care so that the receiver understands your intended meaning
advantages and disadvantages to cellphones
advantages= convenient, security
disadvantages= disrupt classrooms/jobs/events, bring private conversation to public sphere
nonverbal communication
transmission of meaning from one person to another through means of symbols other than words
5 characteristics of nonverbal communication
1) conveys emotions
2) multi-channeled (Facial expression, gestures, eye contact) where as verbal is one channel
3) ambiguous: things can mean different things to different people
4) may contradict a verbal message
5) culture-bound
6 elements of nonverbal communication
personal space, facial expression, eye contact, paralanguage, body language, touch
personal space
space surrounding a person that is felt to "belong" to that person
- dependent on culture: europe large space, US medium space, latin/middle eastern smaller
- dependent on situation: ATM machine want more space
- conveys information of status: stand further for high status
the study of people's use of interpersonal space
6 emotions shown through facial expression
anger, fear, happiness, sadness, surprise, disgust
- universally recognized
- older people less likely to recognize them
display rules
norms that govern the appropriate displays of emotions in a culture (requiring unsuccessful contestants in a beauty pageant to smile)
- men show less than women
people who engage in high eye contact...
...are judged to have effective social skills and credibility
communicates the intensity of feelings (but not positivity or negativity)
- in love, gaze longer
- can become staring (steady eye contact)
- direct eye contact offensive in Mexico, Latin America, Japan
gender and racial differences in eye contact
- women gaze longer than men
- higher status look longer when speaking than listening
- low status look shooter when speaking than listening
- blacks look longer when speaking than whites, but less when listening
the study of communication through body movements
body language
open posture= comfort (men more likely)
leaning towards someone= interest
higher status= more relaxed
lower status= rigid, feet together
- can convey support, consolation, sexual intimacy, status, power
- higher status touch lower status more, increases compliance
men and women touching behaviours
- women touch to convey closeness and intimacy
- men use touch as control, indicating their power
- older pairs women touch more, younger pairs men
- female pairs touch more than male-male pairs
how something is said rather than what is said
vocal cues
grunts, sighs, murmurs, gasps, other vocal sounds
- how loudly or softly someone speaks
- how fast they talk, the pitch, the rhythm, quality
lying NOT associated with...
slow talking, long pauses before speaking, excessive shifting of posture, reduced smiling, lack of eye contact
lying IS associated with...
higher pitch, short answers, hesitations, dilated pupils, inconsistency in facial expressions and lower body movements
records fluctuation in physiological arousal when answering a question
- heart rate, blood pressure, respiration rate, perspiration, galvanic skin response
- 85-90% accurate
nonverbal sensitivity
the ability to accurately encode (Express) and decode (understand) nonverbal cues
- related to social and academic competence and well-being
golden rule of conversation
give to others what you would like to receive from them
- give your attention, respect, let them know you like them
- focus on what the person is saying vs. how you look, what your going to say next
how to get the ball rolling in a conversation
1) indicate you are open to conversation by commenting on surroundings
2) introduce yourself
3) select a topic you both can relate to
4) elaborate on initial topic
5) make a smooth exit
the act of sharing information about yourself with another person
- share more if you trust the person
emotional-evaluative vs factual-descriptive self-disclosure
emotional-evaluative= feelings of closeness (your feelings about your sister)
factual-descriptive= no feelings of closeness (that you have 3 siblings)
self-disclosure in relationships
high at the beginning, goes down as it progresses
established relationships= when one reveals private info you respond with sympathy (rather than a similar disclosure)
self-disclosure and culture
individualistic= personal sharing essential to close friendships and partnerships
collectivist= open up about group memberships or status because these factors guide social interactions
self-disclosure and gender
women more open than men
- female friends share more than male friends
- other-gender relationships it is more equal
effective listening
mindful activity and complex process that requires one to select and organize information, interpret and respond to communication, recall what one has heard
to be a good listener... (4)
1) signal your interest by using nonverbal cues
2) hear the other person out before you respond
3) engage in active listening (clarifying, paraphrasing)
4) pay attention to other person's nonverbal cues
content paraphrasing
focusing on the literal meaning of the message
feelings paraphrasing
focus on the emotions connected to the messages
communication apprehension
anxiety caused by having to talk with others
4 responses of communication apprehension
1) avoidance
2) withdrawal (say as little as possible)
3) disruption (inability to make fluent oral presentation)
4) over communication
barriers to effective communication (4)
1) defensiveness
2) ambushing
3) motivational distortion
4) self-preoccupation (pseudolistening)
an excessive concern with protecting oneself from being hurt
looking for the opportunity to attack a presenter, labeled as verbal "bush wackers"
motivational distortion
hearing what you want to hear instead of what is being said
- can also read too into things and distort messages
- contains selective attention
pretending to listen while mind is occupied with other topics
culture and interpersonal conflict
individualistic= encourage direct confrontation
collectivist= avoid conflict, negotiate to avoid confrontation
conflict avoidance cycle
think of conflict as bad > get nervous > avoid as long as possible > conflict gets out of hand and must be confronted > handle it badly
5 styles of managing conflict
1) avoiding/withdrawing
2) accommodating
3) competing/forcing
4) compromising
5) collaborating
avoidance/withdrawing in conflict
low concern for self and others, hope ignoring will make it go away
- sometimes good to postpone and let people cool off
accommodating in conflict
low concern for self, high concern for others, uncomfortable with conflict
- bring conflict to quick end by giving in
competing/forcing in conflict
high concern for self, low concern for others, turns everything into win or lose
- deceitful and aggressive leading to hostility
compromising in conflict
moderate concern for self and others, willing to negotiate and meet other person halfway
- both parties maintain some satisfaction
collaborating in conflict
high concern for self and others, splitting difference between positions to find a sincere solution that will satisfy both parties
- most productive and best strategy
acting in one's own best interests by expressing thoughts and feelings directly and honestly
- high self-esteem, satisfactory interpersonal conflict, effective conflict management
submissive communication
giving into others on points of possible contention
- poor self-esteem, self-denial, cannot say no to requests, emotional suppression, strained relationships
aggressive communication
saying and getting what one wants at the expense of others feelings
- may overlap with assertiveness
- promotes guilt, alienation, disharmony