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31 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
• Chronic pain-stiffness in muscles, soft tissues, and joints
• fatigue, disturbed sleep, depression
• etio-unknown stress?, hormonal imbalanced, infection
• dx-no specific test 18 tender points
• tx-alleviated symptoms
• swayback anterior curve
• etio-related to abdominal weight
• posterior curve (hunchback)
• etio-inflammation, tumors, TB, ankylosing, spondylosis, osteoporosis
• lateral curve
• etio-idiopathic; uneven leg length
•tx-brace, surgery, fusion with rods
• degenerative joint disease (DJD)
• normal wear and tear, vary common
• large weight-bearing joints involved
• etio-unknown, aging, trauma
• tx-reduce inflammation, minimize pain, maintain function
•surgery-total hip, total knee, fusion
lyme disease
• sx-rash; target rash
• sx-resemble those of arthritis
• etio-caused by spirochete (bacterium), transmitted by tick carried by mice or deer
• dx-blood test antibodies
• tx-antibodies
• vaccine is no longer available
• inflammation of bursa (fluid filled synovial sac)
• shoulder, elbow, knee, hip, tibia
• etio-excessive friction, repeated trauma
• tx-avoidance of activities, heat, NSAIDs
• infection of the bone and the bone marrow
• etio-staph and strep
• dx-culture of microorganism
• tx-long-term treatment, antibiotics
• heredity disease of uric acid metabolism; men after 39
• high levels of uric acid in blood and in synovial fluid of joints
• usually affects the first metatarsal joints
• tx-rest, immobilized, meds
paget disease (osteitis deformans)
• chronic disease; new bone formed faster than old broken down
• seen in persons older than 40 years
• hardening of bones, but fragile
• frequent fractures (pathologic)
• etio-idiopathic, unknown
• dx-blood test, x-rays, bone scan
• tx-NSAIDs, calcitonin injections, diet
Marfan syndrome
• connective tissue disorders
• long extremities, tall and slender
• other organs involved (subluxation of lens and heart)
• etio-hereditary, autosomal dominant, long arm of chromosomes 15
musculoskeletal tumors
• more tumors of the bone than of muscle or connective tissue, benign more common
• secondary are metastatic that have spread from oritinal site, i,e breast, lung, prostate
• sarcomas are malignant tumors
• may cause osteonecrosis, increase ossification and calcification
• etio-idiopathic
• dx-hx, PE multiple blood test, x-rays
• tx-surgical excision bone craft, chemo
• decreased bone density; leads to porous bone
• most frequently postmenopausal women
• small boned, morthern european or asian
• spontaneous fractures, loss of height
• etio-lack of estrogen most common cause
tx-calcium, bitamin d, estrogen?, exercise
osteomalacia and rickets
• defective mineralization of bones
• in children, called rickets
• etio-deficiency or ineffective use of vitamin d
• dx-blood tests, x-rays
• tx-vitmin d, calcium, calcitonin, sunlight
hallux valgus
• bunion
• first MTP joint
• tx-shoes, meds, surgery
hallux rigidus
• loss of motion in first MTP joint stiffness
• etio-wear and tear
Hammer toe
• toe bends upward like a claw PIP joint
• tx-shoes, sprints, surgery
• broken bone
• named by type
• displacement of bone from its joint
• injury to ligaments and joint capsule
• suduxation
partial dislocation
Type I
less than 1 cm, minimal soft tissue injury
Type II
more than 1 cm, moderate soft tissue injury
Type III
extensive damage to soft tissues including muscle, skin and neurovascular
• muscle (overstretch, overuse_
• acute injury or chronic overuse
• first,second, or third degree or grades
• partial tear of ligament
• more serious than strain
adhesive capsulitis
• = frozen shoulder: stiffness, pain, decrease in range of motion
• etio-disuse of shoulder, second degree to trauma, scar tissue forms in capsule
• tx-increase motion, meds, injection of steroids
• shoulder manipulation may require severe conditions
shin splints
• inflammation to periosteum, extensor muscles or surrounding tissues
• etio-increase in exercise, overuse, overpronation
• usually bilateral
• tx-rest, ice, heat, NSAIDs
plantar fasciitis
• = calcaneal spur syndrom
• plantar fascia, like bowstring, heal to tows on bottom of foot
• etio-inflammation of the fascia
• pain at heel spur forms
• tx-rest, NSAIDs, heel pads, taping foot
• benigh sac-like swelling or cyst
• filled with colorless fluid (synovial)
• From joint capsule or tendon sheath
• commonly forms on back of wrist
• etio-unknown
• tx-not always necessary; needle aspiration, cortisone injection, surgery may be needed
torn meniscus
• meniscus = catilage in knee, semilunar shape
• a medial meniscus and a lateral meniscus on each knee
• etio-sudden twist, usually related to sports injury
• dx-exam MRI
• tx-arthroscopy, meniscectomy
rotator cuff tear
• rotator cuff muscles are muscles of the shoulder
• tears may occur in the tendons of these muscles
• causes acute pain, unable, to abduct the arm
• etio-acute trauma or chronic degenerative changes that occur with aging
• tx-conservatic tx or sometimes surgical repair is required (arthroplasty)