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39 Cards in this Set

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  • Back


Degree to which information can be retrieved from memory. A memory is said to be accessible if it is retrievable.


Memory Loss caused by brain damage or injury. Retrograde amnesia is loss of memory for information before the damage, anterograde amnesia is loss of memory for information after the damage.


Present in the memory system.


The more permanent establishment of memories in the neural architecture.

Cued Recall

A form of recall in which the person is presented with part of the information as a cue to retrieve the rest of the information.

Declarative Memory

Long-term memory knowledge that can be retrieved then reflected on consciously.


Pattern of abilities and performance, revealing that one cognitive process can be disrupted while another remains intact.

Distributed Practive

This occurs when the practice sessions are spaced out in time. This is a more effective way of encoding information.

Dual Coding Hypothesis (Paivio)

According to Paivio, concrete words can be encoded into memory twice, once as verbal symbols and once as image based symbols, thus increasing the likelihood that they will be recalled or remembered.

Elaborative Rehearsal

In the levels of processing framework, elaborative rehearsal involves any rehearsal activity that processes a stimulus into the deeper, more meaningful levels of memory. Any rehearsal that involves meaning, images and other complex information from long term memory.

Enactment Effect

The finding of improved memory for participant performed tasks, relative to those that are not acted out.

Encoding Specificity

Tulving's hypothesis that the specific nature of an item's encoding, including all the context that it was encoded in, determines how effectively the item can be retrieved.

Episodic Memory

Tulving's term for the portion of long-term memory in which personally experienced information is stored.

Explicit Memory

Long-term memory retrieval or performance that entails deliberate recollection or awareness.

Free Recall

the memory task in which that list items may be recalled in any order regardless of the order they were presented.

Generation effect

The finding that information you generate or create yourself is better remembered compared to information you only heard or read.

HERA Model (Hemispheric Encoding/Retrival Asymmetry)

Tulving's attempt to explain patterns of neural data. In general, the left hemisphere is more involved in episodic encoding and semantic retrieval, whereas the right hemisphere is more involved in episodic retrieval.

Implicit memory

Long-term memory performance affected by prior experience with no necessary awareness of the influence.

Maintenance rehearsal

In the levels of processing approach, rehearsal that merely repeats, recycles or refreshes information at a particular level via repetition, without processing it to deeper more meaningful levels of storage.

Massed Practice

When information is studied as a part of one large session. This is a less effective means of memory encoding. (Cramming)


Awareness and monitoring of one's own cognitive state or condition; knowledge about one's own cognitive processes and memory system.


Knowledge about one's own memory system and its functioning.

Method of Loci

Classic mnemonic device in which the to-be-remembered items are mentally placed, one by one, into a set of pre-memorized locations, with retrieval consisting of a mental walk through the locations.

Mnemonic Device

Any mental device or strategy that provides a useful rehearsal strategy for storing and remembering difficult material.


the tendency to recall related words together or the tendency to impose some form of grouping or clustering on information being stored in/retrieved from memory. Related to chunking.

Pair-Associate Learning

A task in which pairs of items, respectively the stimulus and response items, are to be learned, so that upon presentation of the stimulus, the response term can be re-called; a favorite learning task during the verbal learning period of human experimental psychology.

Part-Set Cuing Effect

the finding that if you cue people with part of the list of words, they will have more difficulty recalling the rest of the set than if they had not been cued at all.

Recognition Task

Any yes/no task in which the subjects are asked to judge whether they have seen the stimulus before; often including a reaction time measurement.


The mental repetition or practicing of some to-be-learned material.

Relearning Task

A task in which some material is learned, set aside for a period of time, then relearned to the same criterion in hopes that the relearning will take less time or effort to achieve the same level of accuracy.

Repetition Priming

A priming effect caused by the exact repetition of a stimulus; often used in implicit memory tests.

retrieval cue

Any cue, hint or piece of information used to prompt retrieval of some target information

Ribot's Law

for retrograde amnesia, memory is more affected the closer it is to the time of the injury, with older memories being more likely to be preserved.

Self-reference Effect

the finding that memory is generally better for information that is related to the self in some way.

Semantic Memory

The long-term memory component in which general knowledge is stored.

Serial Recall

A recall task in which the subjects must recall the items in their original order of presentation.

Subjective organization

The grouping or organizing of items that are to be learned according to some scheme or basis devised subject.

Visual imagery

the mental representation of visual information; the skill or ability to remember visual information.

Von Restorff Effect

In a recall task, the elevated accuracy for an item that was noticeably different during list presentation, for instance, because it was written in a different color of ink.