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49 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back

Alcohol Dehydrogenase

helps the body break down toxins such as ethnol


the capacity to do work


the measure of how much energy is dispersed

1st Law of Thermodynamics

energy cannot be created or destroyed

Kinetic energy

The energy of motion

Potential Energy

Stored energy

Second Law Thermodynamics

Energy tends to disperse spontaneously

Activation Energy
Minimum amount of energy required to start a reaction


describes a reaction that requires a net input of free energy to proceed


Describes a reaction that ends with a net release of free energy


A molecule that enters a reaction


a molecule that enters a reaction

Active site

of an enzyme, pocket in which substrates bind and a reaction occurs


the acceleration of a reaction by a molecule that is uncharged by participating in the reaction

Induced-fit model

the concept that substrates binding to an active site of an enzyme improves the fit between the two molecules


A molecule that is specifically acted upon by an enzyme

Transition site

Point during a reaction at which substrate bonds reach their breaking point and the reaction will run spontaneously


Describes a region of an enzyme that can bind a regulatory molecule and is not an active site

Electron transfer chain

Array of enzymes and other molecules that accept and give up electrons in sequence, thus releasing the energy of the electrons in usable increments

Feedback inhibition

mechanism in which a change that results from some activity

Metabolic Pathway

series of enzyme-mediated reactions by which cells build, remodel, or breakdown an organic molecule

Redox Reaction

Oxidation-reduction reaction in which one molecule accepts electrons (becomes reduced) from another molecule (which becomes oxidized)


Substance that prevents oxidation of other molecules


the nucleotide adenosine triphosphate

ATP/ADP cycle

Process by which cells regenerate ATP. ADP forms when ATP loses a phosphate group, then ATP again as ADP gains a phosphate group


an organic molecule that is a cofactor


a metal ion or a coenzyme that associates with an enzyme and is necessary for its function


Transfer of a phosphate group form one molecule to another

Adhesion Protein

membrane protein that helps cells stick together in animal tissue

Fluid Mosaic

Model of a cell membrane as a two-demintional fluid of mixed composition

Receptor Protein

Plasma membrane protein that binds to a particular substance outside the cell

Recognition Protein

plasma membrane protein that identifies a cell as belonging to self

Transport Protein

Protein that passively or actively assists specific ions or molecules across a membrane


Number of molecules or ions per unit volume

Concentration gradient

difference in concentration between joining regions of fluid


spontaneous spreading of molecules or ions in a liquid or gas


Describes a fluid that has a high overall solute concentration relative to another fluid


Describes a fluid has a low overall solute concentration relative to another fluid


Describes two fluids with identical concentrations


the diffusion of water across a selectively permeable membrane in response to a concentration gradient

osmotic pressure

Amount of turgor that prevents osmosis into cytoplasm or other hypertonic fluid


Pressure that a fluid exerts against a wall, membrane, or other structure that contains it.

Active transport

Energy-requiring mechanism in which a transport protein pumps a solute across a cell membrane against its concentration gradient

Calcium Pump

Active transport protein; pumps calcium ions across a cell membrane against their concentration gradient

Passive Transport

Mechanism by which a concentration gradient drives the movement of a solute across a cell membrane through a transport protein. Requires no energy input.


Process by which a cell takes in a small amount of extracellular fluid by a ballooning inward of its plasma membrane


Process by which a cell expels a vesicles contents to extracellular fluid


"cell eating"; an endocytic pathway by which a cell engulfs particles such as microbes or cellular debris


Endocytosis of bulk materials