• Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off

Card Range To Study



Play button


Play button




Click to flip

Use LEFT and RIGHT arrow keys to navigate between flashcards;

Use UP and DOWN arrow keys to flip the card;

H to show hint;

A reads text to speech;

35 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
John Locke
English philosopher who developed the theory of natural rights
Virginia Statue for Religious Freedom
Stated the human mind was created free and that government control over religion was tyrannical
Judith Sargent Murray
one of the first female playwrights in the U.S. - began to redefine the ideal of motherhood. They related to the birth of the new nation
Republican Motherhood
proposed that American Women could influence politics and society through their work in the home
Benjamin Franklin
Early supporter of a confederation of states, born in Boston, received little formal education. established printing company and the newspaper "Pennsylvania Gazette" in Philadelphia. Began publishing Poor Richard's Almanack. Excelled as a scientist and inventor, developed bifocal glasses, the franklin stove, and lightening rod. activ contributor to community, began political career in 1751 when he was elected to the Pennsylvania Assembly. Proposed Albany Plan of Union, served on committee to draft the Declaration of Independence, Died in 1790
Articles of Confederation
created a confederation of states while guaranteeing each state its sovereignty, freedom, and independence. A sovereign nation or state has supreme power over its own affairs. Authorized Congress to borrow and coin money, conduct worldly affairs, set policy towards American Indians, and settle disputes between the states. require states to contribute money to the central Govt. allowed each state one vote in congress, regardless of its population or # of representatives
Land Ordinance of 1785
marked off the land into townships and divided each township into 640-acre tracts. Permitted the cash sale of these tracts for not less than one dollar per acre and reserved one section of each township for the establishment of a school
Northwest Ordinance
established a system for governing the Northwest Territory.
a sharp drop in business activity accompanied by rising unemployment
Daniel Shays
former Revolutionary War captain, led shays rebellion
Shays's Rebellion
When the government imposed taxes to help pay for war debt, angry farmers took up arms against the government. shay and 1,200 farmers headed to Springfield, to try to seize the federal arsenal. When artillery fire killed 4 of shay's men the others fled.
Constitutional Convention
More and more people began to think that the articles of confederation needed improvement. so the constitutional convention began in Philadelphia on May 14, 1787.
James Madison
politician, served in the continental congress, drafted Virginia Plan
Edmund Randolph
triggered a heated debate when he presented the Virginia plan, drafted by James Madison
Virginia Plan
drafted by James Madison, bold departure from the Articles, the plan shifted political power away from the states and toward the central govt. the plan reflected the belief that the nation's survival depended on Federalism
the division of powers between a strong central Govt. and the state Govt.
made up of two houses
Roger Sherman
to balance the interests of large and small states Sherman proposed a two house legislature that would allow for both equal representation and representation based on population
Great Compromise
The compromise granted each state, regardless of size, an equal vote in the upper house. In the lower house representation would be according to population
Three-Fifths Compromise
only 3/5 of a state's slave population would count in determining its representation
taxes on imports or exports
favored ratification, mostly wealthy merchants, planters, and lawyers
feared a powerful national government, opposed ratification
delegates selected by state governments
The Federalist (also known as federalist papers)
series of 85 essays written by Alexander Hamilton, James Madison, and John Jay, answered critics
delegated powers
include the rights to coin money, to regulate trade with foreign nations and among states, and to raise and support an army and navy
reserved powers
all powers not specifically granted to the federal government or denied the states are kept, or reserved, by the states. guaranteed by the 10th amendment. Ex: establishing local governments and overseeing schools
concurrent powers
powers that are held jointly by the federal government and state government. Ex: levying and collecting taxes, borrowing money, providing for the public warfare, and establishing courts to apply and enforce the laws
Supremacy Clause
"This constitution, and the laws, and all treaties of the United States, shall be the supreme law of the land" Ranks Constitution and all federal laws above state constitutions and state laws.
Separation of powers
prevents any one branch from becoming to powerful, legislative branch makes laws, executive, sees that they are carried out, and judicial branch interprets and applies the laws
Checks and Balances
gives each branch the means to restrain the powers of the other two
The House may impeach or charge the president who is thought to be guilty of crimes, then he is tried and if found guilty kicked out of office
elastic clause
allows congress to exert its powers in ways not specifically outlined in the Constitution