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56 Cards in this Set

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Absorption

Passage of materials through the walls of the small intestine into the bloodstream.

Amino Acids

Small building blocks (like links in a chain), released when proteins are digested.

Amylase

Enzyme (-ase) secreted by the pancreas and salivary glands to digest starch (amyl/o).

Anus

Terminal end or opening of the digestive tract to the outside of the body.

Appendix

Blind pouch hanging from the cecum (in the right lower quadrant [RLQ]). Literally means hanging (pend/o) onto (ap-, which is a form of ad-).

Bile

Digestive juice made in the liver and stored in the gallbladder.

Bilirubin

Pigment released by the liver in bile.

Bowel

Intestine.

Canine Teeth

Pointed, dog-like teeth next to the incisors. Also called cuspids or eyeteeth.

Cecum

First part of the large intestine.

Colon

Portion of the large intestine consisting of the ascending, transverse, descending, and sigmoid segments.

Common Bile Duct

Carries bile from the liver and gallbladder to the duodenum. Also called the choledochus.

Defecation

Elimination of feces from the digestive tract through the anus.

Deglutition

Swallowing.

Dentin

Primary material found in teeth.

Digestion

Breakdown of complex foods into simpler forms.

Duodenum

First part of the small intestine. Duo=2, den=10; the duodenum measures 12 inches long.

Elimination

Act of removal of materials from the body; in the digestive system, the removal of indigestible materials as feces.

Emulsification

Physical process of breaking up large fat globules into smaller globules, thereby increasing the surface area that enzymes can use to digest the fat.

Enamel

Hard, outermost layer of a tooth.

Enzyme

Chemical that speeds up a reaction between substances.

Esophagus

Tube connecting the throat to the stomach.

Fatty Acids

Substances produced when fats are digested.

Feces

Solid wastes; stool.

Gallbladder

Small sac under the liver; stores bile.

Glucose

Simple sugar.

Glycogen

Starch; glucose is stored in the form of glycogen in liver cells.

Hydrochloric Acid

Substance produced by the stomach; necessary for digestion of food.

Ileum

Third part of the small intestine; from the Greek eilos, meaning twisted.

Incisor

Any one of four front teeth in the dental arch.

Insulin

Hormone produced by the endocrine cells of the pancreas.

Jejunum

Second part of the small intestine.

Lipase

Pancreatic enzyme necessary to digest fats.

Liver

Large organ located in the RUQ of the abdomen.

Lower Esophageal Sphincter (LES)

Ring of muscles between the esophagus and the stomach. Also called the cardiac sphincter.

Mastication

Chewing

Molar Teeth

Sixth, seventh, and eighth teeth from the middle on either side of the dental arch.

Palate

Roof of mouth.

Pancreas

Organ under the stomach; produces insulin and enzymes.

Papillae (singular: papilla)

Small elevations of the tongue; a nipple-like elevation.

Parotid Gland

Salivary gland within the cheek, just anterior to the ear.

Peristalsis

Rhythmic contractions of the tubular organs.

Pharynx

Throat, the common passageway for food from the mouth and for air from the nose.

Portal Vein

Large vein bringing blood to the liver from the intestines.

Protease

Enzyme that digests protein.

Pulp

Soft tissue within a tooth, containing nerves and blood vessels.

Pyloric Sphincter

Ring of muscle at the end of the stomach, near the duodenum.

Pylorus

Distal region of the stomach, opening to the duodenum.

Rectum

Last section of the large intestine, connecting the end of the colon and the anus.

Rugae

Ridges on the hard palate and the wall of the stomach.

Salvia

Digestive juice produced by salivary glands.

Salivary Glands

Parotid, sublingual, and submandibular glands.

Sigmoid Colon

Fourth and last, S-shaped segment of the colon, just before the rectum; empties into the rectum.

Sphincter

Circular ring of muscle that constricts a passage or closes a natural opening.

Stomach

Muscular organ that receives food from the esophagus.

Triglycerides

Fat molecules composed of three parts fatty acids and one part glycerol; a subgroup of lipids.