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21 Cards in this Set

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Instrumental Conditioning
consequence of behavior determine whether it will be repeated in the future.

the consequences of behavior are important because we LEARN from them.
Discrete Trial Procedures
each training trial ends with removal of the animal from the apparatus, and the instrumental response is performed only ONCE during each trial.

the animal makes ONE response in a trial.
Free Operant Procedures
in contrast to discrete trial procedures, this procedure allows for the animal to repeat the instrumental response without constraint over and over again.

we can look at qualitative properties of the stimulus by changing the outcome.
Thorndike's Law of Effect
this states that if a response in the presence of a stimulus is followed by a satisfying event, the association between the stimulus and the response is strengthened.

if the response is followed by an annoying event, the S-R association is weakened.

*according to the law of effect, what is learned is an association between the response and the stimuli present at the time of the response.

The consequence of the response is not one of the elements in the association.
Instrumental Behaviors
behaviors that require an organism to do something such as solving a problem, or manipulating events in the environment.

something that can be done to solve a problem.
Reinforcement
this means that the <u>procedure</u> is reinforcing. The behavior is going to increase.
Punishment
this means that the <u>procedure</u> is punishing, and the behavior is going to decrease.
Positive
a stimulus is added.
Negative
a stimulus is removed.
Shaping
reinforcement of successive approximations to a desired instrumental response.
Instrumental Conditioning Procedures
1. Participant makes a response
2. This produces an outcome
3. Response ---> Outcome of Relationship
Quality and Quantity
both can affect the reinforcing or punishing value of an outcome.

generally more outcome, ---> more effect.

more desirable/aversive outcome ---> more effect
Positive Contrast
increased activity resulting in an outcome after prior experience with a less attractive outcome.
Negative Contrast
decreased responding for an unfavorable reward because of prior experience with a better one.
Outcome-Belongingness
According to this concept, certain responses naturally belong with the reinforcer because of the animal's evolutionary history.
Temporal Factors
the temporal relation refers to the time between the response and the reinforcer.

the outcome should come shortly after the response for maximal association effect.
Secondary or Conditioned Reinforcer
a conditioned stimulus that was previously assocated with the reinforcer.

verbal prompts such as "good", or "keep going" are conditioned reinforcers that can provide immediate reinforcement for appropriate behavior.

conditioned reinforcers serve to "bridge" a delay between the instrumental response and delivery of the primary reinforcer.
Marking
this facilitates learning with delayed reinforcement by marking the target instrumental response. this can be done by introducing a brief light or noise to show that the "correct" response was made.

this serves to allow for a delay of the reinforcement.
Response-Reinforcer Contingency
We learn about the relationships of response and reinforcers, independent of temporal factors.
Learned Helplessness
animals can perceive the contingency between their behavior and the delivery of a reinforcer. animals learn that the shocks are independent of their behavior: there is nothing they can do to control the shocks.

this reduces motivation to respond and disrupts subsequent instrumental conditioning.
Superstitious Behavior
sometimes there is no connection between a response and an outcome.

a random behavior may be reinforced by a random reward.

sometimes we make connections that are not there.