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76 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
Wealthy planters, wealthy merchants, minsters, good lawyers, and royal officials
Middle Class
Wealthy farmers, skilled craftsmen and poorer merchants (75% of all white colonists)
Indentured Servants
Poor people who signed contracts to work from 4-7 year without pay for anyone who would pay for the passage to the colonies When the contract expired, were paid freedom dues (tools, clothes, 50 acres)
A language that is a mix of African dialects and old English
Negro Election Day
A day of celebration for African Americans in the colonies
The Great Awakening
A powerful religious movement in New England, and to a lesser extent, the rest of the colonies
Jonathan Edwards
The New England preacher considered to have set off the Great Awakening
George Whitefield
An English preacher who helped fan the flames of the Great Awakening
Public schools
Were paid for by the town, as to allow the children of that town a education, and the money for this school was taken from the taxes of the town
Private teachers who are paid for by wealthy people to educate their children
12 to 13 year old boys who work for a master craftsman for free to learn a trade or craft
Dame schools
Private schools for girls ran by rich women
John Locke
An English philosopher, who's ideas about human intellect and discovery set of the Enlightenment in England and in her colonies (to a lesser extent, Europe as well)
Benjamin Franklin
An Enlightenment thinker in the colonies, who invented many useful devices, along with writing a series of sayings.
Poor Richards Almanack
A collection of sayings written by Ben Franklin that is considered very pithy even today
A false statement that hurts one reputation
John Peter Zenger
A New England newspaper owner sued for libel, defended by stating if it is true, it isn’t libel; the case became the base of freedom of speech or freedom of the press
Charles I
An English king who disapproved of Puritans and Separatists
Massachusetts Bay Colony
An Puritan “model colony”, or a new society that was based on biblical laws and teachings on Mass. Bay, founded by John Winthrop
John Winthrop
Was the leader and first governor of the Mass. Bay colony. Quoted saying “the best part of the population is always the least, and of that least part the wiser is always the lesser”, and used this logic as reasoning for only allowing stockholders in the Mass. Bay Company, then allowed Puritan church members who were male, owned property, and were over 21 to vote
Great Migration
The name for Puritan migration to the Mass. Bay colony, that happened between 1629-1640, in which 15,000 Puritan made the crossing from England to Mass. Bay Colony
The first town in the Mass. Bay colony, was the colonies capital
Thomas Hooker
The Puritan priest who founded Connecticut, was a dissident of Puritan secular government, and believed that to much power was in the hands of too few people, so he created the Colony of Connecticut and created the Fundamental Orders of Connecticut to prevent too much power presiding in one person
The first town of Connecticut colony, was the colonies capitial
Roger Williams
Was the founder of Rhode Island, a dissident of Puritan secular government, a firm believer in total religious tolerance
Anne Hutchinson
Was a provocative female dissident of Puritan secular government, was exiled to Connecticut
Leader of hostile indians, stirred up King Philip's (Metacom) war, considered extremely bloody war, was killed in custody of English government 1676
King Phillip
The English name for Metacom
The Common
The center of villages, where Militia training took place
A house for local meetings, where voting on local matters was held
Were a type of early Protestants, who wanted to purify the Anglican Church further than done so by the British Monarchy
General Court
Was the Puritian's governmental congregation, where important matters were taken care of
Fundamental Orders of Connecticut
The governing document that stated the rights of the citizenry of Connecticut
Religious Tolerance
The policy of allowing other religions to exist in a region/ country beside the state embraced religion
Was another name for Sunday, when Puritans forbade work
Town Meeting
A meeting of townspeople, usually in the Meetinghouse with the intent to regulate the towns laws and ordinances
Is an economic theory that states that all trade should benefit the home country
A good with value that is exported out of the country to be bartered or sold
A good with value that is imported into the country to be bartered or sold
Navigation Act
A set of laws that made sure that only England and her colonies benefited colonial trade (resented among colonists)
A nickname for New England Merchants that implied that one would work hard to make a profit
Triangular trade
Was a three way trade between Africa, North and South America, and Europe that provided the world with slaves
Is a name for a group of people who have the power to make laws
Glorious Revolution
Was when King James II was removed and William and Mary of the Netherlands to rule England, as long as they agreed to allow the English Bill of Rights to be passed
Bill of rights
Is a written list of freedoms that a civil body politic (government) promises to protect.
William Penn
Was the founder of Pennsylvania, was a Quaker, who had a policy of fairness to Indians, and by doing so, prevented, for a time, the vicious little wars that would pop up as the people from a colony pushed further and further into the wilderness that the Indians considered to be theirs
Peter Stuyvesant
Was the highly unpopular Dutch Governor of New Amsterdam from 1647-1664 when the English took over the land
The Duke of York
Was King Charles II (English) brother who was given the Colony of New Amsterdam and was renamed in his honor
The “Holy Experiment”
Was another name for Pennsylvania, because Will Penn considered his colony a "Holy Experiment"
The capital city of Pennsylvania, Greek word for brotherly love
The Great Wagon Road
Was a route for many settlers to find a place to settle
Was name for Dutch nobility given a huge land grant, in exchange for the promise to bring 50 european farming families over (at least)
Royal colony
A colony under the DIRECT control of the respective crown
Are an extremist protestant group, whose beliefs (in England) were considered to be wicked (Refusal to bow, Refusal to be conscripted, Refusal to obey laws about women preaching, ETC.)
Pennsylvania Dutch
Were German settlers, were called that because many couldn’t pronounce Deutsh, or German for “German”
Proprietary colony
A type of Colony when a king gave land to one or more people in exchange for yearly payment, payable in any terms
Cash Crops
Are crops that can be sold at a large profit, or a good ROI, at a local or international level
The Middle Passage
Was a sea-lane between Africa and the Americas
Act of Toleration
Was a law that allowed all Christians to worship freely (didn’t extend to Jews)
Is a valuable blue dye that can be grown on a plantation for a great profit
Are people who owe money with no means of paying it back
Slave Codes
Were laws that treat slaves as property, not as humans
Is the belief that one race is superior to another
Sir George Calvert
Was the man with the idea behind the Maryland Colony, but died before the project could get under way, while his son Lord Baltimore continued the project
Lord Baltimore
Was the founder of Virginia, continuing his father’s dream of a Roman Catholic Colony in the Americas
Chesapeake Bay
A bay that is between Maryland and Virginia
St. Mary’s
Is the capital city of Maryland
Margaret and Mary Brent
Two ambitious sisters who came to the colonies and set up plantations of 1000 acres or more, and Margaret prevented a revolt among the governor’s soldiers
Nathaniel Bacon
Was the leader of Bacons Rebellion
Bacon’s Rebellion
Was a group of angry citizens who burned Native American villages, then burned Jamestown, however, the revolt soon fell apart after Bacon died, and 23 of his followers were hung
Charles Town
Is the capital of South Carolina
James Oglethorpe
-Founder of Georgia, considered the Colony a place where debtors could get a fresh start
Is the capital city of Georgia
The Tidewater
Was the name for the plains near the sea, where the land was washed by the sea, and it is called the Tidewater
The Backcountry
Was the name for the land at the foothills of the Appalachian Mountians
The Middle Passage
Was a sea-lane between Africa and the Americas