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43 Cards in this Set

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The common symptoms of vomiting are ________ and _________
The common symptoms of vomiting are HYPERSALIVATION and TACHYCARDIA
What is retching?
Non productive vomiting
What is projectile vomiting?
Projectile vomiting is spontaneous vomiting that does not follow nausea or retching
What are some causes of constipation?
-Neurogenic disorders
-functional or mechanical conditions
-low-residue diet
-sedentary lifestyle
-excessive use of antacids,
What are the 3 types of diarrhea
Osmotic diarrhea –i.e, lactose intolerant
Secretory diarrhea –i.e., cholera
Motility diarrhea –common post GI surgery
________ diarrhea –i.e, lactose intolerant
OSMOTIC diarrhea –i.e, lactose intolerant
A nonabsorbable substance in the intestine draws water into the lumen by osmosis
(Hyperosmotic = attract water)
_______ diarrhea –i.e., cholera
SECRETORY diarrhea –i.e., cholera

toxins, that causes secret ions into gut, attracts water
________ diarrhea –common post GI surgery
MOTILITY diarrhea –common post GI surgery

(Over activity of the smooth muscle of the gut)
What is Olestra?
Sucrose that has FA attached and tastes like FAT but adds no calories
________ diarrheas occur when bacterial toxins enhance colonic Cl-secretion
SECRETORY diarrheas occur when bacterial toxins enhance colonic Cl-secretion
What major symptom would you expect to see from a person that has cholera?
DEHYDATION!!!

(eyes even sink back!)
(Do oral rehydration therapy to get them back!!)
If someone was dehyrdated with cholera, what simple ingredients would you use to make a rehydration drink
water, salt, sugar/honey, bakingsoda
Which is more localized pain (parietal or visceral)?
Parietal pain

Pareietal pain comes from paietal peritoneum and is more intense than visceral pain that arises from the organs themselves
Upper gastrointestinal bleeding includes which 3 organs?
Esophagus, stomach, or duodenum

has Melena = dark tarry stools
Lower gastrointestinal bleeding
includes which 4 organs? jejunum, ileum, colon, or rectum
Jejunum, ileum, colon, or rectum

has Hematochezia–bright red blood in stools
What is bright red blood in stools called?
hematochezia
What is dark tarry stools called?
melena
What is blood in vomit called?
Hematemesis
What is occult bleeding?
source not obvious (neither upper or lower is distinguishable)
What is Dysphagia
Dysphagia is difficulty swallowing
What is Achalasia?
Denervation of smooth muscle in the esophagus and lower esophageal sphincter relaxation

(Ballooning at the bottom of the esophogus)
What is visceral pain?
arises from a stimulus acting on an abdominal organ, its poorly localized (less sharp)
_______ dysphagia is caused by a neural or muscluar disorder that interfer with voluntary swallowing or peristalsis
FUNCTIONAL dysphagia is caused by a neural or muscluar disorder that interfer with voluntary swallowing or peristalsis
GERD is the reflux of ______ from the stomach to the esophagus
GERD is the reflux of CHYME from the stomach to the esophagus
If Gastroesophogeal reflux disease causes inflammation of the esophagus, it is called _________
If GERD causes inflammation of the esophagus, it is called REFLUX ESPOPHAGITIS
Conditions that increase abdominal _______ can contribute to Gastroesophogeal reflux disease
Conditions that increase abdominal PRESSURE can contribute to GERD
What are the manifestations of Gastroesophogeal reflux disease?
- Heartburn
- regurgitation of chyme
- upper abdominal pain within 1 hour of eating
What are the two hiatal hernias
Sliding Hiatal Hernia (Most common)
Paraesophageal Hiatal Hernia (Comes through a second hole of the diaphragm
What is the most common hiatal hernia?
Sliding Hiatal Hernia
If you had the symptom of succussion splash and dehydration, what condition do you likely have?
Pyloric obstruction
In the condition of Intestinal obstruction, there (is/is not) an obstructing lesion
In the condition of Intestinal obstruction, there IS NOT an obstructing lesion
In the condition of Ileus, there (is/is not) an obstructing lesion
In the condition of Ileus, there IS an obstructing lesion
Small intestinal obstruction (does/does not) have vomiting
Small intestinal obstruction DOES have vomiting
Large bowel obstruction obstruction (does/does not) have vomiting
Large bowel obstruction obstruction DOES NOT have vomiting

(pain is lower in the GI than Sm. Intestinal obstruction)
In intestinal obstruction, ________ obstruction is the failure of motility.

_______ obstruction is mechanical blockage
In intestinal obstruction, FUNCTIONAL obstruction –failure of motility

SIMPLE obstruction –mechanical blockage
What is the Inflammatory disorder of the gastric mucosa called?
Gastritis
Gastritis is the Inflammatory disorder of the gastric _______.
Gastritis is the Inflammatory disorder of the gastric MUCOSA

(acute gastritis has scattered red erosions)
Which Chronic gastritis is more common?
Chronic antral gastritis

(not Chronic fundal gastritis because of gravity)
How is Chronic funal gastritis caused?
Autoimmune attack

(Chronic fundal gastritis is cause from either NSAIDS or H.pylori
What condition can NSAIDS or H.pylori cause?
Acute Gastritis
A break in the protective mucosal lining of the lower esophagus, stomach, or duodenum is called _______?
A break in the protective mucosal lining of the lower esophagus, stomach, or duodenum is called PEPTIC ULCER DISEASE
__________ are a type of peptic ulcers that extend through the muscularis mucosae and damage blood vessels.
TRUE ULCERS
are a type of peptic ulcers extend through the muscularis mucosae and damage blood vessels.
__________ are a type of peptic ulcers thaterode the mucosa but do not penetrate the muscularis mucosae
SUPERFICIAL ULCERS are a type of peptic ulcers thaterode the mucosa but do not penetrate the muscularis mucosae